Friday, July 17, 2015

Brumalia--Ancient Latin Sources: post 46 BC Julian Calendar Reforms

Empire: Julian Calendar Reforms

This is a work in progress.
See previous Articles:
--  -- Brumalia in the Roman Republic - Pre-Julian Latin Sources

--  Older documents with Brumalia research
--  -- resources
--  -- Ancient Sources: Statistics and Concordance

-- --  Ancient Sources: Pre 46 BC, Republican Calendar

 In this document I have to include the Julian, Augustan and later Fasti and also have just over 2 dozen authors to finish.


Varro, Marcus Terentius ( 116 BC – 27 BC)

The Varronian Chronology http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/chronology/varro.html

Varro's De Lingua Latina (On the Latin Language) originally consisted of 25 books. Of these books 5-10 survive, though partly mutilated.
De Lingua Latina 6.8.1, 6.8.2, 6.8.4, 6.8.6
alter motus solis est, [alter caeli] quod movetur a bruma ad
solstitium. dicta bruma, quod brevissimus tunc dies est; solstitium,
quod sol eo die sistere videbatur aut quod ad nos versum †proximum
est solstitium; cum venit in medium spatium inter brumam et solsti-
tium, quod dies aequus fit ac nox, aequinoctium dictum. tempus a
bruma ad brumam dum sol redit, vocatur annus, quod ut parvi circuli
anuli, sic magni dicebantur circites ani, unde annus.
8. There is a second motion of the sun, differing
from that of the sky, in that the motion is from bruma
'winter's day' to solstitium 'solstice.' Bruma is so
named, because then the dav is brevissimus 'shortest' :
the solstitium, because on that day the sol 'sun' seems
sistere 'to halt,' on which it is nearest to us. When
the sun has arrived midway between the bruma and
the solstitium, it is called the aequinoctium ' equinox,'
because the day becomes aequus 'equal' to the nox
'night.' The time from the bruma until the sun re-
turns to the bruma, is called an annus 'year,' because
just as little circles are anuli 'rings,' so big circuits
were called ani, whence comes annus 'year.'
[In Kent Vol. 1, p. 180f https://archive.org/stream/onlatinlanguage01varruoft#page/180/mode/2up ]
De Lingua Latina 9.24.3, 9.24.6, 9.25.1, 9.25.3
[24] Nonne in caelo ut
ab aequinoctiali circulo ad solstitialem et hinc ad septemtrionalem
divisum, sic contra [a] paribus partibus idem a bruma versum con-
traria parte? non quantum polus superior abest [et abest et] a sep-
temtrionali †circumit cum his ad sol[i]stitium, tantundem abest in-
ferior ab eo quem ἀνταρκτικὸν vocant astrologi et is ad brumalem?
non, quemadmodum quodque signum exortum hoc anno, [quod] quot-
quot annis eodem modo exoritur? [25] num aliter sol a bruma venit ad
aequinoctium, ac contra cum ad solstitium venit, ad aequinoctialem
circulum et inde ad brumam? nonne luna, ut ab sole discedit ad
aquilonem et inde redit in eandem viam, sic inde fertur ad austrum
et regreditur inde? sed quid plura de astris, ubi difficilius reperitur
quid sit aut fiat in motibus dissimiliter?
24. As in the sky there is a division from the
Equator to the Tropic of Cancer, and from there to
the Arctic Circle, is not also its counterpart, extend-
ing from the Tropic of Capricorn in the other direc-
tion, likewise divided into equal sections ? Is it not
a fact that as far as the North Pole is removed
from the Arctic Circle and this from the Tropic
of Cancer, around which the sun travels when it
comes to the summer solstice, so far the South Pole
is from that Circle which the astronomers call
the Antarctic, and this from the Tropic of Capricorn ?
Is it not true that in the fashion in which each con-
stellation has risen in the sky this year, in just the
same fashion it rises each and every year ?
25. The sun does not come in one way from the
Tropic of Capricorn to the Equator, does it, and on
the other hand, when it comes to the Tropic of
Cancer, return in a different way to the Equator and
thence to Capricorn . The moon, when it goes
away from the sun to the north and returns from there
into the same path which the sun pursues, goes on
from there to the south and comes back again in
just the same way, does it not ? But why should I
speak further of the stars, in the case of which there
is unusual difficulty in finding any irregularity which
exists or takes place in their motions ?
[In Kent Vol. 2, p. 454ff https://archive.org/stream/onlatinlanguage02varruoft#page/454/mode/2up ]
Varro's Rerum rusticarum libri III (Agricultural Topics in Three Books) is the only complete surviving work we have of his.
Volume 1, from the Chapter headings
Res Rusticae 1.ca.1.60, 1.ca.1.61
Sexto intervallo ab aequinoctio autumnali serere opor-
[60] tere usque ad brumam. medii sunt dies XCI. Nec
ante aequinoctium neque post brumam seri opor-
tere. fabam optime seri in vergiliarum occasu
VI idus Novembres. vindemiam fieri oportere
inter aequinoctium autumnale V kal. Octobres
[65] et vergiliarum occasum VI idus Novembres. Deinde
vites putari et propagari et seri poma frigidis
locis vere
Septimo intervallo inter vergiliarum occasum V idus
Novembres et brumam VIII kal. Ianuarias quae
[70] fieri oporteat
Octavo intervallo inter brumam VIII kal. Ianuarias
et favonium V idus Februarias quae fieri oporteat
Res Rusticae 1.28.2.9
Dies primus est veris in aquario, aestatis in tauro,
autumni in leone, hiemis in scorpione. cum unius
cuiusque horum iiii signorum dies tertius et vicesimus
iiii temporum sit primus et efficiat ut ver dies habeat
xci, aestas xciv, autumnus xci, hiems xxcix, quae
redacta ad dies civiles nostros, qui nunc sunt, primi
verni temporis ex a. d. vii id. Febr., aestivi ex a. d. vii
id. Mai., autumnalis ex a. d. iii id. Sextil., hiberni ex
a. d. iv id. Nov., suptilius descriptis temporibus ob-
servanda quaedam sunt, eaque in partes viii divi-
duntur: primum a favonio ad aequinoctium vernum
dies xl, hinc ad vergiliarum exortum dies xliv, ab
hoc ad solstitium dies xliix, inde ad caniculae sig-
num dies xxvii, dein ad aequinoctium autumnale dies
lxvii, exin ad vergiliarum occasum dies xxxii, ab
hoc ad brumam dies lvii, inde ad favonium dies xlv.
1 The first day of spring occurs when the sun is
Aquarius, of summer in Taurus, of autumn ii
Leo, and of winter in Scorpio. Now, as the fin
day of the four seasons is the twenty-third aftei
the successive entry of the sun into each of these
signs, it results that spring has 91 days, summer 94,
autumn 91, and winter 89. These periods reduced
to our modern civil calendar make the first days of
spring date from the 7th of February, of summer
from the 9th of May, of autumn from the nth of
August, and of winter from the 10th of November.
With the more minute division certain dates must
be taken into account, and these seasons are
divided into eight parts: (i) from the time when
Favonius begins to blow to the vernal equinox,
45 days; (2) from then to the rising of the Vergiliae
(Pleiads), 44; (3) from this to the solstice, 48;
(4) thence to the rising of the Dog Star, 27;
(5) next to the autumnal equinox, 67 ; (6) thence
to the setting of the Pleiads, 32; (7) from this
date to the winter solstice, 57 ; and (8) thence to the
blowing of Favonius again, 45.
[Storr-Best p. 70f https://archive.org/stream/onfarmingmterent00varruoft#page/70/mode/2up ]
Res Rusticae 1.34.1.3, 1.34.1.5
Sexto intervallo ab aequinoctio autumnali inci- 34.1.1
pere scribunt oportere serere usque ad diem nona-
gensimum unum; post brumam, nisi quae necessaria
causa coegerit, non serere, quod tantum intersit, ut
ante brumam sata quae septimo die, bruma 5
sata quadragesimo die vix existant. neque ante aequi-
noctium incipi oportere putant, quod, si minus idoneae
tempestates sint consecutae, putescere semina soleant.
fabam optime seri in vergiliarum occasu: uvas autem 2.1
legere et vindemiam facere inter aequinoctium autum-
nale et vergiliarum occasum: dein vites putare in-
cipere et propagare et serere poma. haec aliquot
regionibus, ubi maturius frigora fiunt asperiora, melius 5
verno tempore.
[1] In the sixth period, our authors state, sowing
should be begun at the autumnal equinox, and
may go on for ninety-one days; but after the winter
solstice
you should not sow unless compelled by
necessity—and this makes such a difference that
plants which come up in seven days if sown before
the [winter] solstice
, hardly come up in forty if sown
later [after the winter solstice]. And they are of opinion that you should not
begin before the equinox, because, if bad weather
sets in, the seeds generally rot. Beans are best
[2] sown at the time of the setting of the Pleiads; while
between the autumnal equinox and the setting of the
Pleiads, your grapes must be picked and the vintage
I made. Then one must begin to prune the vines and
propagate, and plant fruit trees. In some districts,
where the hard frosts set in comparatively early, it
is better to do these things in the spring-time.
[Storr-Best p. 76f https://archive.org/stream/onfarmingmterent00varruoft#page/76/mode/2up ]
Res Rusticae 1.35.1.2, 1.35.2.5
Septimo intervallo inter vergiliarum occasum et 1.35.1.1
brumam haec fieri oportere dicunt. serere lilium et
crocum. quae iam egit radicem rosa, [m]ea condi-
tur radicitus in virgulas palmares et obruitur: haec
eadem postea transfertur facta viviradix. violaria in 5
fundo facere non est utile, ideo quod necesse est terra
adruenda pulvinos fieri, quos inrigationes et pluviae
tempestates abluunt et agrum faciunt macriorem. A 2.1
favonio usque ad arcturi exortum recte serpillum e
seminario transferri, quod dictum ab eo, quod serpit.
fossas novas fodere, veteres tergere, vineas arbustumque
putare, dum in xv diebus ante et post brumam, ut 5
pleraque, ne facias. nec non tum aliquid recte seritur,
ut ulmi.
[1] In the seventh period, between the setting of the
Pleiads and the winter solstice, the following things
are to be done, we are told.
Plant lilies and crocus.
To form a rose-plantation take a plant which has
already' struck root, and cut the stem, beginning
at the root, into slips a palm-breadth long, then
cover them with earth and transplant them when
they too have made a living root. It is not good to
make violet beds on a farm, because the earth must
be raised for them, and small mounds are thus
necessarily produced which are washed away by
artificial watering and by rain storms, and so im-
poverish the soil.
2 From the time when Favonius begins to blow
until the rising of Arcturus, you may properly
transplant serpillum (wild thyme), so called from
its creeping (serpere).
New ditches must be dug, the old ones cleared
out, the vines and their supporting trees pruned--
provided that, like most operations of this kind,
they be not done within fifteen days after or before
the winter solstice—though some plants, such as
elms, may properly be planted at that time.
[Storr-Best p. 77f https://archive.org/stream/onfarmingmterent00varruoft#page/76/mode/2up ]
Res Rusticae 1.36.1.1
Octavo intervallo inter brumam et favonium haec 36.1.1
fieri oportet. de segetibus, siqua est aqua, deduci;
sin siccitates sunt et terra teneritudinem habet, sarire.
vineas arbustaque putare. cum in agris opus fieri
non potest, quae sub tecto possunt tunc conficienda 5
antelucano tempore hiberno. quae dixi scripta et pro-
posita habere in villa oportet, maxime ut vilicus norit.
In the eighth period, that is, between the winter
solstice
and the time when Favonius begins to
blow, the following things must be done.
Any water standing on the cornfields must be
drained off. If, however, it is a time of drought,
and the land crumbles easily, it should be hoed.
Prune the vines and their trees.
When no work can be done in the fields, every-
thing that can be done in the farm-house should
then be finished off in the dark winter dawns. It is
good to have the rules which I have given written
out and hung well in view in the farm-house, in
order that all, and especially the bailiff, may know
them.
[ Storr-Best p. 78f https://archive.org/stream/onfarmingmterent00varruoft#page/78/mode/2up ]
Res Rusticae 1.39.3.1
Sationis autem gradus, secundus, hanc habet 1.39.1.1
: natura[m] ad quod tempus cuiusque seminis
apta sit ad serendum. nam refert in agro ad quam
partem caeli quisque locus spectet, sic ad quod tempus
quaeque res facillime crescat. nonne videmus alia florere 5
verno tempore, alia aestivo, neque eadem autumnali,
quae hiberno? itaque alia seruntur atque inseruntur 2.1
et metuntur ante aut post quam alia; et cum pleraque
vere quam autumno inserantur, circiter solstitium
inseri ficos nec non brumalibus diebus cerasos. Quare 3.1
cum semina sint fere quattuor generum, dedit>, quae transferuntur e terra in terram viva[s] ra-
dice[s], quae ex arboribus dempta demittuntur in humum,
quae inseruntur ex arboribus in arbores, de singulis 5
rebus videndum, quae quoque tempore locoque facias.
[1] Now with regard to the second phase—the sowing
—the following questions arise: What season of the
year is naturally adapted for the sowing of a given
seed? For as in a farm the aspect of each part of it
is of importance, so also is the season at which
each kind of plant grows with the least difficulty.
Do we not see that some plants blossom in the
spring, others in the winter, and that the same
things do not flower in autumn as in winter? [2] And
accordingly some things are sown, grafted, or
sown earlier or later than others. We notice also
hat though most grafting is better done in the
spring than in autumn, yet figs are grafted near the
summer solstice and cherries in the heart of winter.
[3] And so, as there are four ways in which plants are
propagated—one natural, three artificial, namely,
the transference of things with quick roots from soil
to soil, the taking of shoots from a tree and planting
them in the ground, and the grafting on one tree of
a slip taken from another, we must examine in de-
tail the conditions of time and place required for
each of these operations.
[ Storr-Best, p. 83 https://archive.org/stream/onfarmingmterent00varruoft#page/82/mode/2up ]
Res Rusticae 1.45.2.2
Primum plerumque e terra exit hordeum diebus vii, 45.1.1
nec multo post triticum; legumina fere quadriduo aut
quinque diebus, praeterquam faba: ea enim serius ali-
quanto prodit [seges ostendit]. item milium et sesima
et cetera similiter aequis fere diebus, praeterquam 5
siquid regio aut tempestas viti[i] attulit, quo minus
ita fiat. quae in seminario nata, si loca erunt frigi- 2.1
diora, quae molli natura sunt, per brumalia tempora
tegere oportet fronde aut stramentis. si erunt imbres
secuti, videndum necubi aqua consistat: venenum enim
gelum radicibus tenellis.
[Of the Growth of Plants]
[1] Barley generally comes up first in seven days,
wheat a little later; leguminous plants in about
four or five days, with the exception of the bean,
for it comes up a good deal later; millet, sesame,
and other similar crops appear in about the same
number of days, save when peculiarity of district or
weather produces some defect which prevents this
from happening.
[2] Plants of a delicate nature, which are raised in a
nursery, should, if the climate be chilly, be covered
during the winter with leaves or straw. If rains
follow, see that there may be no stagnant water
anywhere ; for frost is poison to the delicate roots.
Plants do not grow equally in the same time
[Storr-Best, p. 94f https://archive.org/stream/onfarmingmterent00varruoft#page/94/mode/2up ]
Res Rusticae 3.7.9.4
nihil columbis 9.1
fecundius. itaque diebus quadragenis concipit et parit
et incubat et educat. et hoc fere totum annum fa-
ciunt: tantummodo intervallum faciunt a bruma ad
aequinoctium vernum. pulli nascuntur bini, qui simu- 5
lac creverunt et habent robor, cum matribus pariunt.
qui solent saginare pullos columbinos, quo pluris ven-
dant, secludunt eos, cum iam pluma sunt tecti. deinde
manducato candido farciunt pane: hieme hoc bis, ae-
state ter, mane meridie vesperi: hieme demunt cibum 10
medium.
[Chapter Of Pigeons]
[9] as many cocks as hens. Nothing is more prolific
than the pigeon. Thus within the space of forty days
a hen-bird conceives, lays, hatches, and rears its
young. And this is continued all the year round
the only interval being from the winter solstice to
the spring equinox. They have two young ones at
a time, and when they have grown up and come to
their strength these go on breeding at the same
time as their mothers. Those who fatten young
pigeons to increase their market value keep them
apart from the others as soon as they are covered
with down. Then they stuff them with chewed
white bread; in winter twice a day, in summer
three times, morning, noon, and evening; in winter
the middle meal being cut off.
[Storr-Best, p. 285 https://archive.org/stream/onfarmingmterent00varruoft#page/284/mode/2up ]
Res Rusticae 3.10.3.2
est enim alterum genus varium,
quod ferum vocatur, nec cum iis libenter congregantur,
nec [non] aeque fit mansuetum. anseribus admit- 3.1
tendum [iis] tempus est aptissimum a bruma, ad pa-
riendum et incubandum a Kalendis Februariis vel Mar-
tiis usque ad solstitium. saliunt fere in aqua, iniguntur
in flumen aut piscinam.
[Of Geese]
For there is a
second kind with variegated plumage—they are
called wild geese—which do not willingly associate
[3] with the first, and do not become so tame. For
geese the best time for mating begins with the
winter solstice, for laying and sitting it extends
from 1st February or 1st March to the summer
solstice. Coupling generally takes place in the
water, for which purpose they are driven into a
river or a pond.
[Storr-Best, p. 305f https://archive.org/stream/onfarmingmterent00varruoft#page/304/mode/2up ]

Tibullus, Albius (Died: 19 BC)

Tibullus's erotic poems titled Elegiae date from c. 31 BC.
Elegiae 1.4.5
'Sic umbrosa tibi contingant tecta, Priape,
Ne capiti soles, ne noceantque nives:
Quae tua formosos cepit sollertia? Certe
Non tibi barba nitet, non tibi culta coma est,
Nudus et hibernae producis frigora brumae, [5]
Nudus et aestivi tempora sicca Canis.'
Sic ego; tum Bacchi respondit rustica proles
Armatus curva sic mihi falce deus:
'O fuge te tenerae puerorum credere turbae,
Nam causam iusti semper amoris habent.     [10]
“So may the shady leafage, Priapus, shelter you,
lest either snow or sun’s heat do you harm,
tell me: what schemes of yours snare lovely boys? For sure,
it’s not your splendid beard or well-groomed hair:
all naked you endure the stormy winter’s chill   [5]
and the parched season of the sweltering Dog.”
I asked, and then the rural scion of Bacchus, armed
with pruning-hook, delivered this homily:
“O shun to trust yourself to the gentle throng of boys,
for they all offer ample grounds for love!            [10]
[Corelis translation https://sites.google.com/site/romanelegy/tibullus ]


Vergilius Maro, Publius ( 70 BC – 19 BC)

Georgics published c. 29 BC

Georgica 1.211
Libra die somnique pares ubi fecerit horas
et medium luci atque umbris iam dividit orbem,
exercete, uiri, tauros, serite hordea campis 210
usque sub extremum brumae intractabilis imbrem; 211
[Loeb L063N https://archive.org/stream/L063NVirgilIEcloguesGeorgicsAeneid16/L063N-Virgil%20I%20Eclogues%2C%20Georgics%2C%20Aeneid%201-6#page/n107/mode/2upPerseus http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi002.perseus-lat1:1.204-1.230]
When the Balance makes the hours of daytime and sleep equal, and now parts of the world in twain, half in light and half in shade, then, my men, work your oxen, sow barley in your fields, as late as the eve of winter's rains, when work must cease.
[Loeb L063N 1916 Title: Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid, Books 1-6, p. 95 https://archive.org/stream/L063NVirgilIEcloguesGeorgicsAeneid16/L063N-Virgil%20I%20Eclogues%2C%20Georgics%2C%20Aeneid%201-6#page/n107/mode/2upPerseus http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi002.perseus-eng1:1.204-1.230 ]

Georgica 3.321, 3.443
Ergo omni studio glaciem ventosque nivalis
quo minor est illis curae mortalis egestas,
avertes victumque feres et virgea laetus 320
pabula, nec tota claudes faenilia bruma.
[Vergil. Bucolics, Aeneid, and Georgics Of Vergil. J. B. Greenough. Boston. Ginn & Co. 1900. http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi002.perseus-lat1:3.295-3.338 ]
Therefore, the less they need man's care, the more zealously should you screen them from frost and snowy blasts, gladly bringing them their food and provender of twigs, and closing not your hay lofts throughout the winter.
[Loeb L063N 1916 Title: Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid, Books 1-6, p. 177
https://archive.org/stream/L063NVirgilIEcloguesGeorgicsAeneid16/L063N-Virgil%20I%20Eclogues%2C%20Georgics%2C%20Aeneid%201-6#page/n189/mode/2up ]
Turpis ovis temptat scabies, ubi frigidus imber
altius ad vivum persedit et horrida cano
bruma gelu, vel cum tonsis inlotus adhaesit 443
sudor et hirsuti secuerunt corpora vepres.
[Vergil. Bucolics, Aeneid, and Georgics Of Vergil. J. B. Greenough. Boston. Ginn & Co. 1900. Perseus http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi002.perseus-lat1:3.440-3.477 ]
Loathly scab assails the sheep,
When chilly showers have probed them to the quick,
And winter stark with hoar-frost, or when sweat
Unpurged cleaves to them after shearing done,
And rough thorns rend their bodies.
[Vergil. Bucolics, Aeneid, and Georgics Of Vergil. J. B. Greenough. Boston. Ginn & Co. 1900.
Perseus http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi002.perseus-eng1:3.440-3.477 ]

The Aeneid, published 29-19 B.C.

Aeneis 2.472
Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine Pyrrhus
exsultat, telis et luce coruscus aëna; 470
qualis ubi in lucem coluber mala gramina pastus
frigida sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat,
nunc, positis novus exuviis nitidusque iuventa,
lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga
arduus ad solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis. 475
[Vergil. Bucolics, Aeneid, and Georgics Of Vergil. J. B. Greenough. Boston. Ginn & Co. 1900.
http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-lat1:2.469-2.505 ]
Now at the threshold of the outer court
Pyrrhus triumphant stood, with glittering arms
and helm of burnished brass. He glittered like
some swollen viper, fed on poison-leaves,
whom chilling winter shelters underground,
till, fresh and strong, he sheds his annual scales
and, crawling forth rejuvenate, uncoils
his slimy length; his lifted gorge insults
the sunbeam with three-forked and quivering tongue.
[Vergil. Aeneid. Theodore C. Williams. trans. Boston. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1910.
http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-eng2:2.469-2.505 ]

Aeneis 6.205
Quale solet silvis brumali frigore viscum 205
fronde virere nova, quod non sua seminat arbos,
et croceo fetu teretis circumdare truncos,
talis erat species auri frondentis opaca
ilice, sic leni crepitabat brattea vento.
[Vergil. Bucolics, Aeneid, and Georgics Of Vergil. J. B. Greenough. Boston. Ginn & Co. 1900.
http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-lat1:6.183-6.211 ]
As in winter's cold, amid the woods, the mitletoe, sown of an alien tree, is wont to bloom with strange leafage, and with yellow fruit embrace the shapely stems: such was the vision of the leafy gold on the shadowy ilex, so rustled the foil in the gentle breeze.
[Loeb L063N 1916 Title: Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid, Books 1-6, p. 521
https://archive.org/stream/L063NVirgilIEcloguesGeorgicsAeneid16/L063N-Virgil%20I%20Eclogues%2C%20Georgics%2C%20Aeneid%201-6#page/n529/mode/2up 
cf. Vergil. Aeneid. Theodore C. Williams. trans. Boston. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1910. http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-eng2:6.183-6.211 ]

Vitruvius (born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC)

De Architectura c. 15 B.C.

De Architectura 6.1.9.8
Item propter tenuitatem caeli meridianae nationes ex acuta fervore mente expeditius celeriusque moventur ad consiliorum cogitationes; septentrionales autem gentes infusae crassitudine caeli, propter obstantiam aeris umore refrigeratae stupentes habent mentes. hoc autem ita esse a serpentibus licet aspicere, quae, per calorem cum exhaustam habent umoris refrigerationem, tunc acerrime moventur, per brumalia autem et hiberna tempora ab mutatione caeli refrigeratae, inmotae sunt stupore. ita non est mirandum, si acutiores efficit calidus aer hominum mentes, refrigeratus autem contra tardiores.
[F. Krohn http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-lat1:6.1.9 ]
Further, it is owing to the rarity of the atmosphere that southern nations, with their keen intelligence due to the heat, are very free and swift in the devising of schemes, while northern nations, being enveloped in a dense atmosphere, and chilled by moisture from the obstructing air, have but a sluggish intelligence. That this is so, we may see from the case of snakes. Their movements are most active in hot weather, when they have got rid of the chill due to moisture, whereas at the winter solstice, and in winter weather, they are chilled by the change of temperature, and rendered torpid and motionless. It is therefore no wonder that man's intelligence is made keener by warm air and duller by cold.
[Morgan http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-eng1:6.1.9 ]

De Architectura 9.1.1.11
Ea autem sunt divina mente comparata habentque admirationem magnam considerantibus, quod umbra gnomonis aequinoctialis alia magnitudine est Athenis, alia Alexandriae, alia Romae, non eadem Placentiae ceterisque orbis terrarum locis. itaque longe aliter distant descriptiones horologiorum locorum mutationibus. umbrarum enim aequinoctialium magnitudinibus designantur analemmatorum formae, e quibus perficiuntur ad rationem locorum et umbrae gnomonum horarum descriptiones. ἀνάλημμα est ratio conquisita solis cursu et umbrae crescentis ad brumam observatione inventa, e qua per rationes architectonicas circinique descriptiones est inventus effectus in mundo.
[ Krohn http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-lat1:9.1.1 ]
IT is due to the divine intelligence and is a very great wonder to all who reflect upon it, that the shadow of a gnomon at the equinox is of one length in Athens, of another in Alexandria, of another in Rome, and not the same at Piacenza, or at other places in the world. Hence drawings for dials are very different from one another, corresponding to differences of situation. This is because the length of the shadow at the equinox is used in constructing the figure of the analemma, in accordance with which the hours are marked to conform to the situation and the shadow of the gnomon. The analemma is a basis for calculation deduced from the course of the sun, and found by observation of the shadow as it increases until the winter solstice. By means of this, through architectural principles and the employment of the compasses, we find out the operation of the sun in the universe.
[ Morgan http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-eng1:9.1.1 ]

De Architectura 9.3.3.8
Scorpionem autem cum sol ingressus fuerit occidentibus vergiliis, minuit progrediens meridianas partes longitudines dierum. e scorpione cum percurrendo init in sagittarium ad femina eius, contractiorem diurnum pervolat cursum. cum autem incipit a feminibus sagittarii, quae pars est attributa capricorno, ad partem octavam, brevissimum caeli percurrit spatium. ex eo a brevitate diurna bruma ac dies brumales appellantur. e capricorno autem transiens in aquarium adauget et aequat sagittarii longitudine diei spatium. ab aquario cum ingressus est in pisces favonio flante, scorpionis comparat aequalem cursum. ita sol ea signa circum pervagando certis temporibus auget aut minuit dierum et horarum spatia.
Nunc de ceteris sideribus, quae sunt dextra ac sinistra zonam signorum meridiana septentrionalique parte mundi stellis disposita figurataque, dicam.
[ Krohn http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-lat1:9.3.3 ]
When the sun has entered Scorpio, at the time of the setting of the Pleiades, he begins to make the days shorter as he advances toward the south. From Scorpio he enters Sagittarius and, on reaching the thighs, his daily course is still further diminished. From the thighs of Sagittarius, which are reckoned as part of Capricornus, he reaches the end of the first eighth of the latter, where his course in heaven is shortest. Consequently, this season, from the shortness of the day, is called bruma or dies brumales. Crossing from Capricornus into Aquarius, he causes the days to increase to the length which they had when he was in Sagittarius. From Aquarius he enters Pisces at the time when Favonius begins to blow, and here his course is the same as in Scorpio. In this way the sun passes round through the signs, lengthening or shortening the days and hours at definite seasons.
I shall next speak of the other constellations formed by arrangements of stars, and lying to the right and left of the belt of the signs, in the southern and northern portions of the firmament.
[ Morgan http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-eng1:9.3.3 ]

De Architectura 9.7.7.8
Cum hoc ita sit descriptum et explicatum, sive per hibernas lineas sive per aestivas sive per aequinoctiales aut etiam per menstruas in subiectionibus rationes horarum erunt ex analemmatos describendae, subiciunturque in eo multae varietates et genera horologiorum et describuntur rationibus his artificiosis. omnium autem figurarum descriptionumque earum effectus unus, uti dies aequinoctialis brumalisque itemque solstitialis in duodecim partes aequaliter sit divisus. quas ob res non pigritia deterritus praetermisi, sed ne multa scribendo offendam, a quibusque inventa sunt genera descriptionesque horologiorum, exponam. neque enim nunc nova genera invenire possum nec aliena pro meis praedicanda videntur. itaque quae nobis tradita sunt et a quibus sint inventa, dicam.
[ Krohn http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-lat1:9.7.7 ]
This having been drawn and completed, the scheme of hours is next to be drawn on the baseplates from the analemma, according to the winter lines, or those of summer,or the equinoxes, or the months, and thus many different kinds of dials may be laid down and drawn by this ingenious method. But the result of all these shapes and designs is in one respect the same: namely, the days of the equinoxes and of the winter and summer solstices are always divided into twelve equal parts. Omitting details, therefore,—not for fear of the trouble, but lest I should prove tiresome by writing too much,—I will state by whom the different classes and designs of dials have been invented. For I cannot invent new kinds myself at this late day, nor do I think that I ought to display the inventions of others as my own. Hence, I will mention those that have come down to us, and by whom they were invented.
[ Morgan http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-eng1:9.7.7 ]

De Architectura 9.8.15.4
Per scorpionis vero spatia et sagittarii proclivius deprimens se foramen rediensque circumactione ad capricorni partem VII, restituit celeritate salientis brumales horarum brevitates.
Quae sunt in horologiorum descriptionibus rationes et apparatus, ut sint ad usum expeditiores, quam apertissime potui, perscripsi. restat nunc de machinationibus et de earum principiis ratiocinari. itaque de his, ut corpus emendatum architecturae perficiatur, insequenti volumine incipiam scribere.
[ Krohn http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-lat1:9.8.15 ]
Finally, the opening comes down more rapidly through Scorpio and Sagittarius, and on its return from its revolution to the end of the first eighth of Capricornus, the velocity of the stream renews once more the short hours of the winter solstice. The rules and forms of construction employed in designing dials have now been described as well as I could. It remains to give an account of machines and their principles. In order to make my treatise on architecture complete, I will begin to write on this subject in the following book.
[ Morgan http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1056.phi001.perseus-eng1:9.8.15 ]

Horatius Flaccus, Quintus (65 - 8 BC)


The Carmina (Odes) Books 1-4 published 23 B.C. Book 4 in 13 B.C.

Carmina 2.6.18
ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet
Iuppiter brumas et amicus Aulon
fertili Baccho minimum Falernis
invidet uvis;
[ Shorey and Laing http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0893.phi001.perseus-lat1:2.6 ]
Long springs, mild winters glad that spot
By Jove's good grace, and Aulon, dear
To fruitful Bacchus, envies not
Falernian cheer.
[ Conington http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0025%3Abook%3D2%3Apoem%3D6 ]
Carmina 4.7.12
frigora mitescunt Zephyris, ver proterit aestas
interitura, simul
pomifer autumnus fruges effuderit, et mox
bruma recurrit iners.
damna tamen celeres reparant caelestia lunae:
[ Shorey and Laing http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0893.phi001.perseus-lat1:4.7 ]
Frosts yield to zephyrs; Summer drives out Spring,
To vanish, when
Rich Autumn sheds his fruits; round wheels the ring,—
Winter again!
Yet the swift moons repair Heaven's detriment:
[ Conington http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0025%3Abook%3D4%3Apoem%3D7 ]

The Sermones or Satirae 35 – 33 B.C.

Sermones 2.6.25
ne prior officio quisquam respondeat, urge.'
sive aquilo radit terras seu bruma nivalem
interiore diem gyro trahit, ire necesse est.
[ Smart http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0893.phi004.perseus-lat1:2.6 ]
 lest someone answer duty's call before you."
Whether the North-wind sweeps the earth, or winter
drags on the snowy day in narrower circle, go I must.
[ Fairclough, L194 Loeb Classical Library p. 213 https://archive.org/stream/L194HoraceSatiresEpistlesArtOfPoetry/L194-Horace%20Satires%20Epistles%20Art%20of%20Poetry#page/n247/mode/2up ]
"quick, lest others get the start."
So, whether Boreas roars, or winter's snow
Clips short the day, to court I needs must go.
[ Conington http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5419/pg5419.html ]

The Epistulae or Letters, Book 1, 20 B.C.

Epistulae 1.7.10
adducit febris et testamenta resignat.
quodsi bruma nives Albanis inlinet agris,
ad mare descendet
[ Fairclough L194 p. 294 https://archive.org/stream/L194HoraceSatiresEpistlesArtOfPoetry/L194-Horace%20Satires%20Epistles%20Art%20of%20Poetry#page/n329/mode/2up ]
bring on fevers and unseal wills.
But if winter shall strew the Alban fields with snow,
your poet will go down to the sea ...
[ Fairclough L194 p. 294 https://archive.org/stream/L194HoraceSatiresEpistlesArtOfPoetry/L194-Horace%20Satires%20Epistles%20Art%20of%20Poetry#page/n329/mode/2up ]
Bring fevers on, and break the seals of wills.
When winter strews the Alban fields with snow,
Down to the sea your chilly bard will go,
[ Clonington http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5419/pg5419.html ]

Epistulae 1.11.19
Incolumi Rhodos et Mytilene pulchra facit quod
paenula solstitio, campestre nivalibus auris,
per brumam Tiberis, Sextili mense caminus.
dum licet ac voltum servat Fortuna benignum, 20
Romae laudetur Samos et Chios et Rhodos absens.
[ Fairclough L194 p. 322f https://archive.org/stream/L194HoraceSatiresEpistlesArtOfPoetry/L194-Horace%20Satires%20Epistles%20Art%20of%20Poetry#page/n357/mode/2up ]
To a sound man Rhodes or fair Mitylene is what
a heavy cloak is in summer, an athlete's garb when
snowy winds are blowing, the Tiber in winter, a
stove in the month of August. While one may, and
Fortune keeps a smiling face, at Rome let Samos
be praised, and Chios and Rhodes — though far away !
[ Fairclough L194 p. 323f https://archive.org/stream/L194HoraceSatiresEpistlesArtOfPoetry/L194-Horace%20Satires%20Epistles%20Art%20of%20Poetry#page/n357/mode/2up ]

Hyginus Astronomus (64 BC - AD 17)

Astronomica 1.6.3.9
Hac definitione sphaerae centroque poli qui notius
dicitur quinque partibus sumptis, circulus χειμερινὸς
τροπικός
instituitur, a nobis hiemalis, a nonnullis
etiam brumalis appellatus, ideo quod sol cum ad eum
circulum peruenit, hiemem efficit his qui ad aquilonem 10
spectant;
From this boundary of the sphere, and the center axis which
is defined by the five parts, the circuit of the winter
solstice is established, which by us is called winter,
and also Bruma by more than a few. This is because when the sun 10
reaches this point winter begins, which can be seen to move to the north.
[Tr. A. Ring & J. Abrahamson]


Livius, Titus (64 or 59 BC – AD 17)

Ab Urbe Condita 21.54.7.1
[7] erat forte brumae tempus et niualis dies in locis Alpibus Appenninoque interiectis, propinquitate etiam fluminum ac paludum praegelidis
[7] It happened to be the winter season and a snowy day, in the region which lies between the Alps and the Apennine, and excessively cold [p. 754]by the proximity of rivers and marshes:
[English: D. Spillan, A.M., M.D., Cyrus Evans, 1849 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0147%3Abook%3D21%3Achapter%3D54]
[7] It chanced to be the time of year when the days are shortest, and it was snowing in the region between the Alps and the Apennines, and the proximity of rivers and marshes intensified the bitter cold.
[Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 21 Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D., Ed. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0152%3Abook%3D21%3Achapter%3D54 ]


Ab Urbe Condita 40.22.7.4
[7] duabus aris ibi Iovi et Soli sacratis cum inmolasset, qua triduo ascenderat, biduo est degressus, frigora nocturna maxime metuens, quae caniculae ortu similia brumalibus erant.
[ Latin: W. Weissenborn, 1875  http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0179%3Abook%3D40%3Achapter%3D22]
[7??] Jupiter and the Sun, he made in two days the descent which had required three for the ascent, fearing most the nightly colds, which, at the time of the rising of the dog-star, were like those of winter.
[ Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 40
Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D., Ed.http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0167%3Abook%3D40%3Achapter%3D22]


Ab Urbe Condita 43.18.1.3
Perseus principio hiemis egredi Macedoniae finibus non ausus, ne qua in regnum vacuum inrumperent Romani, sub tempus brumae, cum inexsuperabilis ab Thessalia montes nivis altitudo facit,
[Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 43 W. Weissenborn, H. J. Müller, Ed.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0140%3Abook%3D43%3Achapter%3D18]
Perseus did not dare to leave the limits of Macedonia at the outset of winter, for fear that at some point the Romans might raid his undefended realm.
[Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 43 Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D., Ed.  http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0168%3Abook%3D43%3Achapter%3D18]


Ovidius Naso, Publius  (20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18)

Amores 3.6.95
Fontis habes instar pluviamque nivesque solutas,
Quas tibi divitias pigra ministrat hiemps;
Aut lutulentus agis brumali tempore cursus, 95
Aut premis arentem pulverulentus humum.[P. Ovidius Naso, Amores R. Ehwald, Ed. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0068%3Atext%3DAm.%3Abook%3D3%3Apoem%3D6]
Thou hast only the rain and the melted snows of the fountain,
Riches served to Thee by sluggish winter;
Or a muddy winter season for the course, 95
Or dried and dusty ground.

[Tr. J. Abrahamson]

Metamorphoses 4.199
Modo surgis Eoo
temperius caelo, modo serius incidis undis,
spectandique mora brumales porrigis horas,
deficis interdum, vitiumque in lumina mentis  200
transit et obscurus mortalia pectora terres.
[P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses (Latin) (ed. Hugo Magnus) http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0029%3Abook%3D4%3Acard%3D167]

Too early thou
art rising from thy bed of orient skies,
too late thy setting in the western waves;
so taking time to gaze upon thy love,
thy frenzy lengthens out the wintry hour!
[P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses (English) (ed. Brookes More) http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0028%3Abook%3D4%3Acard%3D167]


Fasti 1.163, 1.394

'bruma novi prima est veterisque novissima solis:
principium capiunt Phoebus et annus idem.'
...
festa corymbiferi celebrabas, Graecia, Bacchi,
tertia quae solito tempore bruma refert.
[P. Ovidius Naso, Fasti Sir James George Frazer, Ed.
 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2008.01.0547]
And swiftly, casting his words in twin verses:
Midwinter’s the first of the new sun, last of the old:
Phoebus and the year have the same inception.’
...
Greece, you held a festival of ivy-berried Bacchus,
That used to recur at the appointed time, every third winter.
[Poetry in Translation: Ovid's Fasti http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/OvidFastiBkOne.htm ]

Tristia 1.11.39

non haec in nostris, ut quondam, scripsimus hortis,
nec, consuete, meum, lectule, corpus habes.
iactor in indomito brumali luce profundo
ipsaque caeruleis charta feritur aquis.
[P. Ovidius Naso, Tristia (Latin) (ed. Arthur Leslie Wheeler)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0492%3Abook%3D1%3Apoem%3D11]

They weren’t written in my garden, as once they were,
or while you, my familiar couch, supported me.
I’m tossed on the stormy deep, on a wintry day,
and the paper itself is exposed to the dark waters.
[Book TI.XI:1-44 Ovid’s Apology for the Work
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/OvidTristiaBkOne.htm#anchor_Toc34214747]


Tristia 4.7.1

Bis me sol adiit gelidae post frigora brumae,
bisque suum tacto Pisce peregit iter.
tempore tam longo cur non tua dextera versus
quamlibet in paucos officiosa fuit?
[P. Ovidius Naso, Tristia (Latin) (ed. Arthur Leslie Wheeler) http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0492%3Abook%3D4%3Apoem%3D7]

The sun has twice drawn near me, after the icy winter cold,
and twice completed his journey, reaching Pisces.
In all that time why hasn’t your hand
stirred itself to write me a few lines?
[Poetry In Translation Book TIV.VII:1-26 Request for A Letter
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/OvidTristiaBkFour.htm#anchor_Toc34217192 ]

Tristia 5.10.8
Ut sumus in Ponto, ter frigore constitit Hister,
facta est Euxini dura ter unda maris.
at mihi iam videor patria procul esse tot annis,
Dardana quot Graio Troia sub hoste fuit. [p. 246]
stare putes, adeo procedunt tempora tarde,  5
et peragit lentis passibus annus iter.
nec mihi solstitium quicquam de noctibus aufert,
efficit angustos nec mihi bruma dies,
scilicet in nobis rerum natura novata est,
cumque meis curis omnia longa facit. 10[P. Ovidius Naso, Tristia (Latin) (ed. Arthur Leslie Wheeler)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0492%3Abook%3D5%3Apoem%3D10]

Three times the Danube’s frozen with the cold, three times
the Black Sea’s waves have hardened, since I’ve been in Pontus.
Yet I seem to have been absent from my country already
for as long as the ten years Troy knew the Greek host.
You’d think time stood still, it moves so slowly,
and with lagging steps the year completes its course.
For me the summer solstice hardly lessens the nights,
and winter can’t make the days any shorter.
Surely nature’s been altered, in my case,
and makes all things as tedious as my cares.
[Poetry In Translation Book TV.X:1-53 Harsh Exile In Tomis
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/OvidTristiaBkFive.htm#anchor_Toc34217368 ]

Epistulae ex Ponto 2.4.25
    
Non ego, si biberes securae pocula Lethes,   
  excidere haec credam pectore posse tuo.   
Longa dies citius brumali sidere noxque     25
  tardior hiberna solstitialis erit   
nec Babylon aestum nec frigora Pontus habebit   
  caltaque Paestanas uincet odore rosas   
quam tibi nostrarum ueniant obliuia rerum:   
  non ita pars fati candida nulla mei est.
I can’t believe it would vanish from your heart,
  though you drank deep of Lethe’s care-dispelling waters.
Sooner will the longest days occur in winter,
  and summer nights be swifter than December’s,
Babylon lack heat, and Pontus have no ice,
  the marigold out-scent the rose of Paestum,
than forgetfulness of what we were shall possess you.
   No part of my fate can be so devoid of brightness.
[Poetry In Translation: Book EII.IV:1-34 To Atticus: Literary Friendship
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/OvidExPontoBkTwo.htm#anchor_Toc34217671 ]


Epistulae ex Ponto 4.5.4
Ite, leues elegi, doctas ad consulis aures     4.5.1
  uerbaque honorato ferte legenda uiro.    
Longa uia est nec uos pedibus proceditis aequis    
  tectaque brumali sub niue terra latet.    
Cum gelidam Thracen et opertum nubibus Haemum     5
  et maris Ionii transieritis aquas,    
luce minus decima dominam uenietis in Vrbem,    
  ut festinatum non faciatis iter. 

Go, slight verses, to the Consul’s learned ear,
carry a message for that distinguished man to read.
It’s a long road, and your feet won’t balance,
and the land lies shrouded in winter snow.
You’ll cross frozen Thrace, Haemus hidden  5
in the clouds, and the waters of the Ionian Sea,
in less than ten days, even if you don’t hurry
on the journey, you’ll reach the imperial city.
[Poetry In Translation: Book EIV.V:1-46 To Sextus Pompeius: Thanking The Consul
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/OvidExPontoBkFour.htm#anchor_Toc34218021]

Epistulae ex Ponto 4.7.34
Nec mora, conspicuus longe fulgentibus armis,    
  fortia ne possint facta latere caues    
ingentique gradu contra ferrumque locumque    
  saxaque brumali grandine plura subis.    

No delay: conspicuous from afar in shining armour,
  ensuring that your brave deeds can’t go unnoticed,
with swift strides you charge their position,
  its steel, and stones, heavier than winter hail.
[Poetry In Translation:  Book EIV.VII:1-54 To Vestalis: Local Knowledge
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/OvidExPontoBkFour.htm#anchor_Toc34218021]

Epistulae ex Ponto 4.13.40
atque aliquis 'Scribas haec cum de Caesare' dixit    
  'Caesaris imperio restituendus eras.'    
Ille quidem dixit, sed me iam, Care, niuali    
  sexta relegatum bruma sub axe uidet.     40
Carmina nil prosunt, nocuerunt carmina quondam    
  primaque tam miserae causa fuere fugae. 

And one said: ‘Since you write all this about Caesar,
you ought to be restored to Caesar’s dominions.’
That’s what he said: but already, my Carus,
the sixth winter sees me exiled under the icy pole.
My poetry’s no help. Poetry once harmed me,
and was the prime cause of this wretched exile.
[Poetry In Translation:  Book EIV.XIII:1-50 To Carus: The Sixth Winter
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/OvidExPontoBkFour.htm#anchor_Toc34218033]


Ibis 37
 Desinet esse prius contrarius ignibus umor,    
  Iunctaque cum luna lumina solis erunt;    
Parsque eadem caeli zephyros emittet et euros,    
  Et tepidus gelido flabit ab axe notus;    
Et ver autumno, brumae miscebitur aestas,
  Atque eadem regio vesper et ortus erit;    
Et nova fraterno veniet concordia fumo,
  Quem vetus accensa separat ira pyra:    
Quam mihi sit tecum positis, quae sumpsimus, armis
  Gratia, commissis, improbe, rupta tuis. 
Moisture will sooner cease to conflict with fire,
 the sun’s light be merged with that of the moon:
one part of the sky bring east and west winds too,
 warm south winds blow out of the frozen pole:
spring with autumn, summer with winter, mix,
 dawn and sunset lie in the same part of the sky:
new harmony rise with smoke, that an ancient
 quarrel divides, from the brothers’ blazing pyre:
than you and I lay down, in a friendship that you shattered
 by your crimes, these weapons we’ve assumed, cruel one.
[Poetry In Translation:  Ibis:1-40 Preliminaries at the Altar: The Enemy
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/Ibis.htm#anchor_Toc77770255]

Germanicus, Claudius Caesar (15 BC - AD 19)

fragmenta Aratea 4(3+4).38, 4(3+4).160
at modicos imbres, proni cum cornua Tauri
frugiferamque Deam uel brumalem Capricornum
attigerit, liquido non saeuus ab aethere fundet.
...
frigidus at rabidis horrebit Aquarius Euris
brumalesque dabit pluuias atque igne perenni
cum sonitu quatiet nubes. si cura sagacem



Seneca senior, Lucius Annaeus ( 54 BC – c. 39 AD)

Controversiae, excerpta 5.5.1.19
desinat incendium, cuius consilio coepit. scilicet ut domus ad
caelum omne conversae brumales aestus habeant, aestiva frigora,
et non suis vicibus intra istorum penates agatur annus, ut sint



Mela, Pomponius (died c. AD 45)

De Chorographia 1.115.3
ut cum vicina flumina, tum Maeotis et Bosphorus tum Ponti aliqua
brumali rigore durentur, solus aestus hiememque iuxta ferens idem
semper et sui similis incitatusque decurrat. ripas eius Sauromatae et



Phaedrus ( c. 15 BC – c. 50 AD)

Fabulae Aesopiae 4.25.19
Te circa murum pasci video stercore.
Aestate me lacessis; cum bruma est siles.
Mori contractam cum te cogunt frigora,



Persius Flaccus, Aulus (ad 34 - 62)

Saturae 6.1
SATVRA VI
Admouit iam bruma foco te, Basse, Sabino?
iamne lyra et tetrico uiuunt tibi pectine chordae?



Lucanus, Marcus Annaeus (39 AD – 65 AD)

Bellum Civile 1.17, 1.259
quaque dies medius flagrantibus aestuat horis
et qua bruma rigens ac nescia uere remitti
astringit Scythico glacialem frigore pontum!
...
non ausus timuisse palam: uox nulla dolori
credita, sed quantum, uolucres cum bruma coercet,
rura silent, mediusque tacet sine murmure pontus,



Bellum Civile 4.50
fata dedit uariis incertus motibus aer.
pigro bruma gelu siccisque Aquilonibus haerens
aethere constricto pluuias in nube tenebat.



Bellum Civile 5.4, 5.407, 5.711
seruauit fortuna pares. iam sparserat Haemo
bruma niues gelidoque cadens Atlantis Olympo,
instabatque dies qui dat noua nomina fastis
...
transcurrit, curuique tenens Minoia tecta
Brundisii clausas uentis brumalibus undas
inuenit et pauidas hiberno sidere classes.
...
eripuit nautis excussitque ordine puppes.
Strymona sic gelidum bruma pellente relinquunt
poturae te, Nile, grues, primoque uolatu



Bellum Civile 6.333, 6.478
contigit Emathiam, bello quam fata parabant.
Thessaliam, qua parte diem brumalibus horis
attollit Titan, rupes Ossaea coercet;
...
explicuere iugum, nubes suspexit Olympus,
solibus et nullis Scythicae, cum bruma rigeret,
dimaduere niues. inpulsam sidere Tethyn



Bellum Civile 9.377, 9.874
ut neque sole uiam nec duro frigore saeuam
inde polo Libyes, hinc bruma temperet annus.
atque ingressurus steriles sic fatur harenas:
...
qua te parte poli, qua te tellure reliqui,
Africa? Cyrenis etiamnunc bruma rigebat:
exiguane uia legem conuertimus anni?



Bellum Civile 10.299
mirari quam nosse tuos. consurgere in ipsis
ius tibi solstitiis, aliena crescere bruma
atque hiemes adferre tuas, solique uagari



Seneca iunior. Lucius Annaeus (c. 4 BC – AD 65)

Phoenissae 370
peperi nocentes. derat aerumnis meis,
ut et hostem amarem. bruma ter posuit niues
et tertia iam falce decubuit Ceres,



Medea 715
quodcumque tellus uere nidifico creat
aut rigida cum iam bruma decussit decus
nemorum et niuali cuncta constrinxit gelu,



Phaedra 966
agitare uices aetheris alti,
ut nunc canae frigora brumae
nudent siluas,



Thyestes 837
dux astrorum saecula ducens
dabit aestatis brumaeque notas,
non Phoebeis obuia flammis



Hercules Oetaeus 383
at cum solutos expulit Boreas Notos
et saeua totas bruma decussit comas,
deforme solis aspicis truncis nemus:



Hercules Oetaeus 469
descendat astris Luna desertis licet
et bruma messes uideat et cantu fugax
stet deprehensum fulmen et uersa uice



Hercules Oetaeus 596
tecum solitae condita cistis,
cum iam pulso sidere brumae
tertia soles euocat aestas



Dialogi 7.22.3.6
adficiunt diuitiae et exhilarant ut nauigantem secundus et
ferens uentus, ut dies bonus et in bruma ac frigore apricus
locus. Quis porro sapientium—nostrorum dico, quibus



De Beneficiis 1.12.3.4
aut venationem iam munere edito mittat et vestimenta
aestiva bruma, hiberna solstitio. Sit in beneficio sen-
sus communis; tempus, locum observet, personas, quia



Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium 122.8.3
hieme concupiscunt rosam fomentoque aquarum calentium
et locorum apta mutatione bruma lilium [florem vernum]
exprimunt? Non vivunt contra naturam qui pomaria in



Naturales Quaestiones 3.29.1.9
futuram, cum eadem siderum turba in Capricornum
conuenerit. Illic solstitium, hic bruma conficitur;
magnae potentiae signa, quando in ipsa mutatione



Naturales Quaestiones 4a.2.18.10
tractu uenit, uentorum calidissimus est. Nullum ex
his animalibus, quae latent bruma, umquam recon-
ditur; etiam per hiemes in summo et aperto serpens



Naturales Quaestiones 4b.4.3.1
feruntur.
Bruma lentas pluuias habet et tenues,
quales saepe solent interuenire, cum pluuia rara



Naturales Quaestiones 5.17.2.6
cardines eunt: est septemtrionalis, est solstitialis,
est aequinoctialis, est brumalis, est contrarius
septemtrionali. His sextus accedit, qui superiorem



Petronius (c. 27 – 66 AD)

Satyrica 132.8.5
nec iam poteram, quod modo conficere libebat;
namque illa metu frigidior rigente bruma
confugerat in viscera mille operta rugis.



Columella, L. Iunius Moderatus (AD 4 - 70 )

De Arboribus 5.3.4, 5.4.5, 5.4.6, 5.4.10
sita erit, arato. ab Idibus Octobribus oblaqueare incipito,
ante brumam oblaqueatam habeto. per brumam uitem ne
colito, nisi si uoles eas radices, quae in oblaqueatione ap-
...
sic resectae inarescunt nec ultra uitibus obsunt. possunt
etiam suboles per brumam caedi, eo magis quod frigoribus
extirpatae minus recreantur. peracta oblaqueatione ante bru-
mam tertio quoque anno macerati stercoris, ne minus sex-
tarios binos ad radices uitium posuisse conueniet, praeter-
quam columbinum; quod si quo amplius quam heminam
posueris, uiti nocebit. post brumam deinde oblaqueationem
circumfodito. ante aequinoctium uernum, quod est octauo



De Arboribus 10.2.7
non possunt, acuta dolabra abradito. in agro macro et sicco
uineam inbecillam ante brumam putato; quam partem non de-
putaueris, circa Kal. Februarias repetito. ab Idibus Decem-



De Arboribus 10.4.1, 10.5.4
De fossura.
Vineam nouellam ante brumam oblaquetam habeto,
ut omnes imbres limumque concipiat. uites arboresque,
...
radices abrumpantur. bidentibus saepe et alte fodito ae-
qualiter et stercore uel palea conspargito solum ante bru-
mam uel, cum circum ipsam uitem summatim ablaqueaueris,
stercorato.



De Arboribus 17.1.5
tuitur. Magoni placet siccis locis oliuam autumno post
aequinoctium seri ante brumam; nostrae aetatis agricolae
fere uernum tempus circa Kal. Maias seruant. Oportet



De Arboribus 24.1.1, 24.1.2, 25.1.5
eo modo seruabuntur etiam anno toto.
Piros autumno ante brumam serito, ita ut minime dies
quinque et uiginti ad brumam supersint. quae ut sint fera-
ces, cum iam adoleuerint, alte ablaqueato et iuxta ipsam
...
quam Graecam, quam quidam ceratium uocant, item Per-
sicum ante brumam per autumnum serito. amygdala si
parum feracia erunt, per forata arbore lapidem adigito; ita



De Re Rustica 1.6.1.5
aestiua sic digeratur, ut spectent hiemalis temporis cubi-
cula brumalem orientem, cenationes aequinoctialem occi-
dentem. rursus aestiua cubicula spectent meridiem aequi-



De Re Rustica 2.8.2.5, 2.8.2.7
et quadraginta ab occasu Vergiliarum, qui fit ante diem
nonum Kalendas Nouembris ad brumae tempora. sic enim
seruant prudentes agricolae, ut quindecim diebus prius,
quam conficiatur bruma, totidemque post eam confectam
neque arent neque uitem aut arborem putent; nos quo-



De Re Rustica 2.10.9.1, 2.10.34.3
satio dicitur; tempestiua frequentius, non numquam tamen
sera melior est. post brumam parum recte seritur, pessime
uere; quamuis sit etiam trimestris faba, quae mense Fe-
...
luxuria plerumque corrumpitur. potest autumno seri nec
minus post brumam Ianuarii parte nouissima uel toto Fe-
bruario, dum ante Kalendas Martias, quem mensem uniuer-



De Re Rustica 2.11.8.3
que in totum, sicut ante iam diximus, hiberna sartio plu-
rimum iuuat diebus serenis ac siccis post brumam con-
fectam mense Ianuario, si gelicidia non sint. ea porro sic



De Re Rustica 4.ca.11.2
XI. Per autumnum ablaqueandam esse utique primo quin-
quennio nouellam uineam et ante brumam coaequandam.
XII. Ablaqueata[m] uinea[m] quemadmodum aestiuae radi-



De Re Rustica 4.8.2.7
nascentur aut hiemalis, quae consistit in lacusculis ablaqueationis,
aqua brumae congelationibus noua uulnera peruret et ad medullam
penetrabit. quod ne fiat, recidere ab ipso codice instar unius digiti



De Re Rustica 4.23.2.6
mam quamque partem uineti frigoribus, macerrimam uere uel
autumno, quin etiam per brumam meridiano axi oppositas uitis,
Aquiloni per uer et autumnum deputare conueniet;



De Re Rustica 4.29.2.3, 4.29.3.3
sitionem permissam dissimulare non est fidei meae, nec quia
ignorem brumae temporibus aliquando insitam uitem conprehen-
dere; sed non quid in uno uel altero experimento casu fiat uerum
...
distendit, omnem scrupulum summouere debemus. est enim con-
trarium, quod Atticus praecipit: nam idem per brumam negat recte
putari uineam; quae res quamuis minus laedit uitem, merito tamen



De Re Rustica 4.32.5.2
tempus repastinandi et conserendi est, priusquam
oculi harundinum egerminant. caeditur deinde post brumam. nam
usque in id tempus incrementum capit, ac tum conpescitur, cum



De Re Rustica 5.10.17.1, 5.10.17.2, 5.10.20.5
anno.
Pirum autumno ante brumam serito, ita ut minime dies xxv
ad brumam supersint. quae ut sit ferax, cum adoleuerit, alte eam
ablaqueato et iuxta ipsam radicem truncum findito, in fissuram
...
tium uernum satio est; siliquam Graecam, quam quidam ceration
uocant, et Persicum ante brumam per autumnum serito. amygdala
si parum ferax erit, forata arbore lapidem adigito et ita librum arbo-



De Re Rustica 7.3.11.9
ad rem pertinet, ut ante aestiuum quam hibernum solstitium
conualescat, solusque ex omnibus animalibus bruma com-
mode nascitur. ac si res exigit, ut plurimi mares progenerandi



De Re Rustica 7.5.5.5
altius ad uiuum persedit et horrida cano
bruma gelu,
uel post tonsuram, si remedium praedicti medicaminis non



De Re Rustica 8.5.1.1
quemur.
Confecta bruma parere fere id genus auium consueuit. atque
earum quae sunt fecundissimae locis tepidioribus circa Kalendas



De Re Rustica 8.14.4.2
quod minime nutriendum est. anseribus ad admittendum
tempus aptissimum est a bruma, mox ad pariendum et ad in-
cubandum a Kalendis Februariis uel Martiis usque ad solstitium,



De Re Rustica 9.5.1.1
De sedibus apium eligendis
Sedes apium collocanda est contra brumalem meridiem procul
a tumultu et coetu hominum ac pecudum, nec calido loco nec



De Re Rustica 9.14.12.1, 9.14.17.2
rerum profugiant.
Ab occasu Vergiliarum ad brumam, quae fere conficitur circa
VIII Kalendas Ianuarii in octaua parte Capricorni, iam recon-
...
mallus atque ulmi florebunt, sustinendae sunt. post confectam
brumam diebus fere quadraginta quicquid est repositum mellis,
nisi liberalius relictum, consumunt; saepe etiam uacuatis ceris



De Re Rustica 10.1.1.77
Alliget ut saeuus Boreas Eurusque resoluat.
Post ubi Riphaeae torpentia frigora brumae
Candidus aprica Zephyrus regelauerit aura



De Re Rustica 11.2.2.5
facere dicitur, sed aliquid etiam sumat de parte hiemis,
quoniam consumpta bruma iam intepescit annus permittit-
que clementior dies opera moliri. possit igitur ab Idibus



De Re Rustica 11.2.6.5, 11.2.16.2, 11.2.91.5, 11.2.94.1, 11.2.94.6
adhibere. itaque ab Idibus Ianuariis, quod habetur tempus
inter brumam et aduentum Fauonii, si maior est uineae
uel arbusti modus, quicquid ex autumno putationis super-
...
uel arua purgantur et in faenum submittuntur. reliquae
partes uinearum propter brumam uel frigora omissae nunc
palandae et adligandae sunt, ne postea tumentes gemmae
...
agricolae expectare diei breuitatem, praecipue in his re-
gionibus, in quibus brumales dies horarum nouem sunt
noctesque horarum quindecim. possit etiam salix decisa
...
Id. Dec. Scorpio totus mane exoritur, hiemat.
xvi Kal. Ian. sol in Capricornum transitum facit, brumale
solstitium, ut Hipparcho placet; itaque tempestatem
...
x Kal. Ian. Capra occidit mane, tempestatem significat.
viiii Kal. Ian. brumale solstitium sic Chaldaei obseruant,
significat.



De Re Rustica 11.3.5.5
ticis ueteribus funibus uel quibuslibet aliis restibus. siccati
deinde funiculi reponuntur in tabulato; mox ubi bruma
confecta est, intermissis quadraginta diebus circa hirundinis



De Re Rustica 11.3.13.3, 11.3.13.5, 11.3.22.2, 11.3.51.5
serere uere destinauerimus, post autumnum patiemur effos-
sum iacere brumae frigoribus et pruinis inurendum; quippe
e contrario sicut calor aestatis ita uis frigoris excoquit
terram fermentatamque soluit. quare peracta bruma tum
demum stercus inicietur, et circa Idus Ianuarias humus
...
ueniet, quo uastiora capita fiant. regionibus autem pruinosis
neutrum horum per autumnum seri debet, nam brumali
tempore corrumpuntur; quod fere mense Ianuario mitescit,
...
mulsa idem faciunt. sed qui praematurum fructum cucu-
meris habere uolet, confecta bruma stercoratam terram
inditam cophinis obferat modicumque praebeat umorem.



De Re Rustica 11.ca.4.19
per autumnum ablaqueandum esse utique primo quinquennio
nouellam uineam ante brumam coaequandam
ablaqueata uinea quem ad modum aestiuae ridiculae am-



De Re Rustica 12.3.9.4
teresse pastoribus in stabulis fructum cogentibus aut [ut] fetus
ouium aliarumue pecudum subrumantibus; tonsuris uero earum
utique interesse et lanas diligenter percipere et uellera ad numerum



De Re Rustica 12.55.3.8
perueniat, qui, si quid umoris adhuc continetur, siccare eum possit.
haec salsura luna decrescente maxime per brumam sed etiam mense
Februario ante Idus commode fiet.



Plinius Secundus, Gaius  (AD 23 – August 25, AD 79)

Naturalis Historia 2.52.4
quidem et tacitis naturae ipsius indiciis: cur enim partitis
vicibus anni brumalis abscedit aut noctium opacitate terras
reficit? exusturus haut dubie, et sic quoque exurens quadam



Naturalis Historia 2.81.4
terrae octavis in partibus arietis ac librae, bis permutatis
spatiis, in auctum diei bruma, octava in parte capricorni,
noctis vero solstitio, totidem in partibus cancri. Inae-



Naturalis Historia 2.108.2, 2.109.1
Quin partibus quoque signorum quorundam
sua vis inest, ut autumnali aequinoctio brumaeque, cum
tempestatibus confici sidus intellegimus, nec imbribus
...
alba et salices solstitio folia circumagunt. floret ipso
brumali die suspensi in tectis arentis herba pulei. rum-
puntur intentae spiritu membranae. miretur hoc qui non



Naturalis Historia 2.119.7, 2.119.9, 2.120.6
quattuor. sunt ergo bini in quattuor caeli partibus, ab
oriente aequinoctiali subsolanus, ab oriente brumali vul-
turnus. illum apelioten, hunc Graeci eurum appellant.
a meridie auster et ab occasu brumali Africus; notum et
Liba nominant. ab occasu aequinoctiali favonius, ab
...
ab ortu solstitiali, Phoenica media regione inter ortum
brumalem et meridiem, item inter Liba et notum conpo-
situm ex utroque medium inter meridiem et hibernum



Naturalis Historia 2.122.8, 2.125.5
a. d. VIII kalendas Martias chelidonian vocant ab hirundinis
visu, nonnulli vero ornithian, uno et LXX die post bru-
mam
ab adventu avium flantem per dies VIIII. favonio
contrarius est quem subsolanum appellavimus. dat aestatem
...
hiberni multumque aestivo illi dissimilis, cuius ex adverso
est Africus. ante brumam autem VII diebus totidemque
post eam sternitur mare alcyonum feturae, unde nomen



Naturalis Historia 2.127.7
flatus est eorum, in Ponto ab aquilone, reliquis in parti-
bus a meridie. spirant autem et a bruma, cum vocantur
ornithiae, sed leniores et paucis diebus. permutant et



Naturalis Historia 2.138.6
eadem de causa frigidioris caeli. Etruria erumpere terra
quoque arbitratur, quae infera appellat, brumali tempore
facta saeva maxime et exsecrabilia, cum sint omnia, quae



Naturalis Historia 2.151.4
crescente ab aequinoctio verno non exsistunt, nec circa
solstitium longissimis diebus, bruma vero [id est brevissimis]
frequenter, iidem sublimes humili sole humilesque sublimi,



Naturalis Historia 2.176.7
occasusque cernatur, solstitiali exortus per suam liniam,
brumali occasus. quae accidere nullo modo possent nisi in
centro sita.



Naturalis Historia 2.177.4
signiferi excelsissima nobis ad septentrionalem plagam ver-
sus, contraque ad alium polum brumalis, item medio am-
bitu signiferi orbis incedens aequinoctialis.



Naturalis Historia 2.186.8
mundi angusto lucis ambitu subiecta terrae continuos dies
habere senis mensibus noctesque e diverso ad brumam
remoto. quod fieri in insula Thyle Pytheas Massiliensis

Naturalis Historia 2.216.1
tumentes et autumnali amplius quam verno, inanes vero
bruma et magis solstitio. nec tamen in ipsis quos dixi
temporum articulis, sed paucis post diebus, sicuti neque



Naturalis Historia 2.229.9
Appenninum fluvius Novanus, omnibus solstitiis torrens,
bruma siccatur.



Naturalis Historia 3.45.8
id diligenti subtilitate exigat, inter sextam horam primam-
que brumalem.



Naturalis Historia 4.19.4
occidente Siculo pulsatur, a meridie Cretico urguetur, ab
oriente brumali Aegaeo, ab oriente solstitiali Myrtoo, quod
a Megarico incipiens sinu totam Atticen adluit.



Naturalis Historia 4.89.7
verno in autumnum: semel in anno solstitio oriuntur iis
soles brumaque semel occidunt. regio aprica, felici tem-
perie, omni adflatu noxio carens. domus iis nemora luci-



Naturalis Historia 4.104.4
esse noctes indicavimus, cancri signum sole transeunte,
nullosque contra per brumam dies. hoc quidam senis
mensibus continuis fieri arbitrantur. Timaeus historicus



Naturalis Historia 4.110.5
mari comprimentibus. ipsa Pyrenaei iuga ab exortu ae-
quinoctiali in occasum brumalem breviores quam latere
meridiano Hispanias faciunt. proxima ora citerioris est



Naturalis Historia 6.58.4
messes, media inter illas hieme etesiarum flatus, nostra vero
bruma lenes ibi aurae, mare navigabile. gentes ei urbes-
que innumerae, si quis omnes persequi velit. etenim



Naturalis Historia 7.170.3
enim quasdam leges natura posuit: quadrini circuitus fe-
brem numquam bruma, numquam hibernis mensibus inci-
pere, quosdam post sexagensimum vitae spatium non acce-



Naturalis Historia 8.187.10, 8.188.1
multi hibernos agnos praeferunt vernis, quoniam magis
intersit ante solstitium quam ante brumam firmos esse,
solumque hoc animal utiliter bruma nasci. arieti naturale
agnas fastidire, senectam ovium consectari, et ipse melior



Naturalis Historia 8.205.6
cenos, sed educare nequeunt tam multos. diebus X circa
brumam statim dentatos nasci Nigidius tradit. implentur
uno coitu, qui et geminatur propter facilitatem aboriendi.



Naturalis Historia 9.12.2
Ballaenae et in nostra maria penetrant. in Ga-
ditano oceano non ante brumam conspici eas tradunt, condi
autem statis temporibus in quodam sinu placido et capaci,



Naturalis Historia 9.51.5
flatum, ut secundo fluctu exeant e Ponto, nec nisi intrantes
portum Byzantium capiuntur. bruma non vagantur; ubi-
cumque deprehensi, usque ad aequinoctium ibi hibernant.



Naturalis Historia 10.90.3, 10.90.4, 10.90.6
rarissimum est nec nisi vergiliarum occasu et circa solstitia
brumamve, nave aliquando circumvolata statim in latebras
abeuntem. fetificant bruma, qui dies halcyonides vocantur,
placido mari per eos et navigabili, Siculo maxime. faciunt
autem VII ante brumam diebus nidos et totidem sequenti-
bus pariunt. nidi earum admirationem habent pilae figura



Naturalis Historia 10.146.2, 10.147.2
Quaedam omni tempore coeunt, ut gallinae, et pa-
riunt, praeterquam duobus mensibus hiemis brumalibus.
ex iis iuvencae plura quam veteres, sed minora, et in eodem
...
maxima. columbae deciens anno pariunt, quaedam et unde-
ciens, in Aegypto vero etiam brumali mense. hirundines
et merulae et palumbi et turtures bis anno pariunt, ceterae



Naturalis Historia 10.150.5
negant omnino geminos excludi. plus vicena quina incu-
banda subici vetant. parere a bruma incipiunt. optima fe-
tura ante vernum aequinoctium. post solstitium nata non



Naturalis Historia 10.162.1
Anseres in aqua coeunt, pariunt vere aut, si bruma
coiere, post solstitium, XL prope, bis anno, si priorem fe-



Naturalis Historia 11.43.1
ratio persuadet, et semper eas partes favorum, quae habe-
ant erithacen. a bruma ad arcturi exortum diebus LX
somno aluntur sine ullo cibo. ab arcturi exortu ad aequi-



Naturalis Historia 11.196.3
mense congruere dicuntur totidemque inveniri, quotum lu-
men eius sit, praeterea bruma increscere. cuniculorum
exta in Baetica gemina saepe reperiuntur. ranarum rube-



Naturalis Historia 12.88.1
sunt homo tantum et audacia. praeterea hibernum mare
exigunt circa brumam, euris tum maxime flantibus. hi recto
cursu per sinus inpellunt, atque a promunturii ambitu ar-



Naturalis Historia 13.64.3
prunus Aegyptia, non dissimilis spinae proxime dictae, pomo
mespili, maturescens bruma nec folia dimittens. lignum in
pomo grande, sed corpus ipsum natura et copia messium



Naturalis Historia 13.132.3
deum, aut vere semine ut porrum, vel caule autumno ante
brumam; si semine, madidum, aut, si desint imbres, satum
spargitur. plantae cubitales transferuntur scrobe pedali. se-



Naturalis Historia 14.83.5
musti in vina transitum—; ergo mergunt e lacu protinus
aqua cados, donec bruma transeat et consuetudo fiat algendi.
est etiamnum aliud genus per se, quod vocat dulce Narbo-



Naturalis Historia 16.188.5, 16.189.2, 16.191.3
nigrescente; tigna et quibus aufert securis corticem a
bruma ad favonium aut, si praevenire cogamur, arcturi
occasu et ante eum fidiculae, novissima ratione solstitio.
...
tos suos fructus. robur vere caesum teredinem sentit,
bruma autem neque vitiatur neque pandatur, alias ob-
noxium etiam, ut torqueat sese findatque, quod in subere

ut in coitu et sub terra sit luna, quod fieri non potest
nisi noctu. si competant coitus in novissimum diem bru-
mae
, illa fit aeterna materies; proxime, cum supra dictis
sideribus. quidam et canis ortum addunt, et sic caesas



Naturalis Historia 17.85.4
non neglegendum, ne radices mora inarescant neve a sep-
tentrionibus aut ab ea parte caeli usque ad exortum bru-
malem
vento flante effodiantur arbores, aut certe non
adversae his ventis radices praebeantur, propter quod emo-



Naturalis Historia 17.110.2
laxato. cerasi libro dempto finduntur. hae solae et post
brumam
inseruntur. dempto libro habent veluti lanugi-
nem, quae si conprehendit insitum, putrefacit. vinculum



Naturalis Historia 17.128.4, 17.128.5
olei. Mago in colle et siccis et argilla inter autumnum
et brumam seri iussit, in crasso aut umido aut subriguo
solo a messe ad brumam. quod praecepisse eum Africae
intellegitur. Italia quidem nunc vere maxime serit. sed



Naturalis Historia 17.131.1, 17.131.4, 17.135.8, 17.136.4, 17.136.7
Mago idem amygdalas ab occasu arcturi ad bru-
mam
seri iubet, pira non eodem tempore omnia, quoniam
neque floreant eodem, oblonga aut rotunda ab occasu ver-
giliarum ad brumam, reliqua genera media hieme ab
occasu sagittae, subsolanum aut septentrionis spectantia,

statutum tempus anni habent ubique, ut cerasi et amygda-
lae circa brumam serendi vel inserendi. de pluribus loco-
rum situs optime iudicabit. frigida enim et aquosa verno

moro ab idibus Februariis in aequinoctium, piro autumnum,
ita ut brumam XV ne minus diebus antecedant, malis
aestivis et cotoneis, item sorbis, prunis, post mediam hie-
mem in idus Februarias, siliquae Graecae et persicis ante
brumam
per autumnum, nucibus iuglandi et pineae et
abellanae et Graecae atque castaneae a kal. Martiis ad



Naturalis Historia 17.145.3
serendi, priusquam oculi harundinum intumescant, ante
kal. Martias. crescit ad brumam usque desinitque, cum
durescere incipit. hoc signum tempestivam habet caesu-



Naturalis Historia 17.189.2
liarum exortum et canis ortu et nigrescente acino. quidam
ita determinant: veterem semel a vindemia ante brumam,
cum alii ablaqueare et stercorare satis putent, iterum ab



Naturalis Historia 17.232.5, 17.233.6
proprius, ut est in Apulia atabulus, in Euboea Olympias.
hic enim si flavit circa brumam, frigore exurit arefaciens,
ut nullis postea solibus recreari possint. hoc genere con-

revivescunt. alia in terris septentrionalibus, ut Ponto,
Thracia, frigore aut gelu laborant, si post brumam conti-
nuavere XL diebus. et ibi autem et in reliquis partibus,



Naturalis Historia 17.250.4
rumque, herbae aqua illa necantur, fruges aluntur, et ri-
guus pro sarculo est. in eodem agro bruma—tanto
magis, si nives iaceant geletve—, ne frigus vites adurat,



Naturalis Historia 18.174.5
tium? stercorare. sulco vario ne ares. tempe-
stive ares." tepidioribus locis a bruma proscindi arva
oportet, frigidioribus ab aequinoctio verno, et maturius



Naturalis Historia 18.202.6, 18.204.1, 18.204.3, 18.204.4
et far a vergiliarum occasu seri iubet, hordeum inter
aequinoctium autumni et brumam, viciam vero et passiolos
et lentem boote occidente. quo fit, ut horum siderum

noctio autumni, in calidis serius, ne ante hiemem luxu-
rient. inter omnes autem convenit circa brumam serendum
non esse, magno argumento, quoniam hiberna semina, cum
ante brumam sata sint, septimo die erumpant; si post
brumam
, vix quadragesimo. sunt qui properent atque ita
pronuntient, festinatam sementem saepe decipere, seroti-



Naturalis Historia 18.220.2, 18.220.6, 18.221.3, 18.222.4, 18.222.6
Cardines temporum quadripertita anni distinctione
constant per incrementa lucis. augetur haec a bruma et
aequatur noctibus verno aequinoctio diebus XC horis tri-

XII; * * * usque ad aequinoctium autumni, et tum aequata
diei procedit nox ex eo ad brumam diebus LXXXVIII horis
tribus—horae nunc in omni accessione aequinoctiales,
non cuiuscumque diei, significantur—, omnesque eae dif-
ferentiae fiunt in octavis partibus signorum, bruma capri-
corni a. d. VIII kal. Ian. fere, aequinoctium vernum arie-

solstitium et aequinoctium autumni fidiculae occasus au-
tumnum inchoat die XLVI, ab aequinoctio eo ad brumam
vergiliarum matutinus occasus hiemem die XLIIII, inter
brumam
et aequinoctium die XLV flatus favoni vernum
tempus, ab aequinoctio verno initium aestatis die XLVIII



Naturalis Historia 18.227.2
publica est et unicuique loco peculiaris. miretur hoc qui
non meminerit ipso brumali die puleium in carnariis flo-
rere. adeo nihil occultum esse natura voluit. et serendi



Naturalis Historia 18.231.2, 18.231.5, 18.231.7
aquam de agro pellere, torcular lavare et recondere. a kal.
Novemb. gallinis ova supponere nolito, donec bruma con-
ficiatur. in eum diem ternadena subicito aestate tota,
hieme pauciora, non tamen infra novena. Democritus
talem futuram hiemem arbitratur, qualis fuerit brumae
dies et circa eum terni; item solstitio aestatem. circa
brumam
plerisque bis septeni halcyonum feturae vento-
rum quiete molliunt caelum. sed et in his et in aliis



Naturalis Historia 18.232.1, 18.232.4
Per brumam vitem ne colito. vina tum defae-
cari vel etiam diffundi Hyginus suadet a confecta ea
septimo die, utique si septima luna conpetat; cerasa circa
brumam
seri. bubus glandem tum adspergi convenit in
iuga singula modios. largior valetudinem infestat, et quo-



Naturalis Historia 18.234.1
A bruma in favonium Caesari nobilia sidera
significant, III kal. Ian. matutino canis occidens, quo die



Naturalis Historia 18.264.3
VIII kal. Iul. diximus. magnus hic anni cardo, magna
res mundi. in hoc usque a bruma crescunt dies [cre-
verunt sex mensibus], sol ipse ad aquilonem scandens



Naturalis Historia 18.336.5
pascito, ut sic ineuntem ineat. ex adverso aquilonis ab
occasu brumali Africus flabit, quem Graeci liba vocant.
in hunc ad coitum cum se pecus circumegerit, feminas



Naturalis Historia 18.338.2
cebit. quarta a septentrione linia, eadem austro ab exor-
tiva parte proxima, brumalem habebit exortum ventumque
volturnum, eurum Graecis dictum, sicciorem et ipsum



Naturalis Historia 19.60.6
num praeparantibus post XIIII dies iterandumque ante
brumam
. VIII iugerum operis palari iustum est, fimum
III pedes alte cum terra misceri, areis distingui easque



Naturalis Historia 19.130.4
binis mensibus inter semen plantamque et maturitatem.
legitimum tamen a bruma semen iacere, plantam favonio
transferre aut semen favonio, plantam aequinoctio verno.



Naturalis Historia 21.34.2
tritum ad theatra replenda. floret vergiliarum occasu pau-
cis diebus folioque florem expellit. viret bruma et colli-
gitur; siccatur umbra, melius etiam hiberna. carnosa et



Naturalis Historia 22.62.1
Aliud adianto miraculum: aestate viret, bruma
non marcescit, aquas respuit, perfusum mersumve sicco



Naturalis Historia 31.56.8
diligentes circa haec videri, dicunt aquas graviores post
brumam
fieri.



Naturalis Historia 36.72.5
lapide ad longitudinem obelisci, cui par fieret umbra
brumae
confectae die sexta hora paulatimque per regulas,
quae sunt ex aere inclusae, singulis diebus decresceret



Valerius Flaccus, Gaius (AD  died c. AD 90)

Argonautica 4.723
vim salis hinc Boreae cedens glaciantibus auris
Pontus et exorta facilis concrescere bruma.
utque vel immotos Ursae rigor invehit amnes



Argonautica 5.602
nec requies quin Marte diem noctemque fatiget.
atque ubi Rhipaea stupuerunt flumina bruma
iam pavidi cum prole Getae, iam pervigil illum



Statius, Publius Papinius (AD c. 45, in Naples – c. 96)

Thebais 4.421, 4.653, 4.706, 4.841
aeternum intonsae frondis, stat peruia nullis
solibus; haud illam brumae minuere, Notusue
ius habet aut Getica Boreas impactus ab Vrsa.
...
marcidus edomito bellum referebat ab Haemo
Liber; ibi armiferos geminae iam sidera brumae
orgia ferre Getas canumque uirescere dorso
...
sic ubi se magnis refluus suppressit in antris
Nilus et Eoae liquentia pabula brumae
ore premit, fumant desertae gurgite ualles
...
inmortale tumens; neque enim tibi cana repostas
bruma niues raptasque alio de fonte refundit
arcus aquas grauidiue indulgent nubila Cauri,



Thebais 6.99
absiliunt metus urguet aues; cadit ardua fagus
Chaoniumque nemus brumaeque inlaesa cupressus,
procumbunt piceae, flammis alimenta supremis,



Thebais 7.287
exultare gregem, quales, cum pallida cedit
bruma, renidentem deducunt Strymona cycni.
ite alacres, numquam uestri morientur honores,



Thebais 8.617
sic Pandioniae repetunt ubi fida uolucres
hospitia atque larem bruma pulsante relictum
stantque super nidos ueterisque exordia fati



Thebais 9.448
signa dedit: mittit gelidus montana Cithaeron
auxilia antiquasque niues et pabula brumae
ire iubet; frater tacitas Asopos eunti



Thebais 12.651
qualis Hyperboreos ubi nubilus institit axes
Iuppiter et prima tremefecit sidera bruma,
rumpitur Aeolia et longam indignata quietem



Silvae 1.2.157
nec servat natura vices: hic Sirius alget,
bruma tepet, versumque domus sibi temperat annum.
Exsultat visu tectisque potentis alumnae



Silvae 1.3.89
debet anus; cedant, quae te iam solibus artis
avia nimbosa revocabunt litora bruma.
Scilicet hic illi meditantur pondera mores;



Silvae 2.1.215
his amor exitio, furor his et saeva cupido,
ut sileam morbos; hos ora rigentia Brumae,
illos implacido letalis Sirius igni,



Silvae 4.1.24
aspicis ut templis alius nitor, altior aris
ignis et ipsa meae tepeant tibi sidera brumae,
moribus atque tuis gaudent turmaeque tribusque



Silvae 4.5.12
questus inexpertumque carmen,
quod tacita statuere bruma.
nos parca tellus pervigil et focus



Silvae 4.6.13
nobis verus amor medioque Helicone petitus
sermo hilaresque ioci brumalem absumere noctem
suaserunt mollemque oculis expellere somnum



Calpurnius Siculus, Titus ( 1st c. BC)

Eclogae 2.74
poma legam, tenues citius numerabit harenas. semper holus metimus, nec bruma nec impedit aestas:
si venias, Crocale, totus tibi serviet hortus.



Eclogae 5.95
marcet et obtuso iacet exarmata veneno.
nunc age vicinae circumspice tempora brumae
qua ratione geras. aperit cum vinea saepes



Quintilianus, Marcus Fabius (AD c. 35 – c. 100) 

Declamationes Maiores [sp.] 13.5.8
meum: libenter bibissem, si invenissem, venenum.
Hoc mihi damnum non brumae glacialis penetrabilis in-
tulit rigor; non suppressi longa siti flores induxerunt ieiu-



Silius Italicus  (AD c. 28 – c. 103)

Punica 12.6
prorumpit Capua Poenus uicinaque late
praemisso terrore quatit, ceu condita bruma,
dum Riphaea rigent Aquilonis flamina, tandem



Martialis, Marcus Valerius (ca. 38-ca. 104 AD)

Epigrammata 1.49.19
Et Nutha, quae vincit nives.
At cum December canus et bruma impotens 
Aquilone rauco mugiet,



Epigrammata 3.58.8
Et multa fragrat testa senibus autumnis;
Hic post Novembres imminente iam bruma
Seras putator horridus refert uvas.



Epigrammata 3.93.16
Admittat inter bustuarias moechas;
Cum bruma mensem sit tibi per Augustum
Regelare nec te pestilentia possit:



Epigrammata 4.40.5
Pauper eras et eques, sed mihi consul eras.
Tecum ter denas numeravi, Postume, brumas:
Communis nobis lectus et unus erat.



Epigrammata 4.57.9
Nympharum pariter Nereïdumque domus.
Herculeos colles gelida vos vincite bruma,
Nunc Tiburtinis cedite frigoribus.



Epigrammata 5.34.5
Oraque Tartarei prodigiosa canis.
Inpletura fuit sextae modo frigora brumae,
Vixisset totidem ni minus illa dies.



Epigrammata 6.80.9
Tonsilibus sertis omne rubebat iter.
At tu Romanae iussus iam cedere brumae,
Mitte tuas messes, accipe, Nile, rosas.



Epigrammata 7.65.1
LXV
Lis te bis decumae numerantem frigora brumae
Conterit una tribus, Gargiliane, foris.



Epigrammata 7.95.1
XCV
Bruma est et riget horridus December,
Audes tu tamen osculo nivali



Epigrammata 8.14.1
XIV
Pallida ne Cilicum timeant pomaria brumam
Mordeat et tenerum fortior aura nemus,



Epigrammata 8.41.2
'Tristis Athenagoras non misit munera nobis,
Quae medio brumae mittere mense solet.'
An sit Athenagoras tristis, Faustine, videbo:



Epigrammata 8.68.3
Rus, Entelle, tuae praeferet ille domus.
Invida purpureos urat ne bruma racemos
Et gelidum Bacchi munera frigus edat,



Epigrammata 8.71.1
LXXI
Quattuor argenti libras mihi tempore brumae
Misisti ante annos, Postumiane, decem,



Epigrammata 9.13.2
Si daret autumnus mihi nomen, Oporinos essem,
Horrida si brumae sidera, Chimerinos;
Dictus ab aestivo Therinos tibi mense vocarer:



Epigrammata 10.5.6
Oret caninas panis inprobi buccas;
Illi December longus et madens bruma
Clususque fornix triste frigus extendat:



Epigrammata 10.15.7
Cum tua Niliacus rura colonus aret?
Quando brevis gelidae missa est toga tempore brumae?
Argenti venit quando selibra mihi?



Epigrammata 10.104.9
Quid mandem tibi, quaeris? Ut sodales
Paucos, sed veteres et ante brumas
Triginta mihi quattuorque visos



Epigrammata 12.62.7
Gaudia: cum sacris te decet esse tuis.
Tu reducem patriae sexta, pater optime, bruma
Pacifici Latia reddis ab urbe Numae.



Epigrammata 12.81.1
LXXXI
Brumae diebus feriisque Saturni
Mittebat Umber aliculam mihi pauper;



Epigrammata 13.1.4
Perdite Niliacas, Musae, mea damna, papyros:
Postulat, ecce, novos ebria bruma sales.
Non mea magnanimo depugnat tessera telo,



Epigrammata 13.16.1
XVI Rapa
Haec tibi brumali gaudentia frigore rapa
Quae damus, in caelo Romulus esse solet.



Epigrammata 13.127.1
CXXVII Coronae roseae
Dat festinatas, Caesar, tibi bruma coronas:
Quondam veris erat, nunc tua facta rosa est.



Epigrammata 14.72.1
LXXII Botulus
Qui venit botulus mediae tibi tempore brumae,
Saturni septem venerat ante dies.



Epigrammata 14.138.1
CXXXVIII Laena
Tempore brumali non multum levia prosunt:
Calfaciunt villi pallia vestra mei.



Fragmenta Bobiensia (AD early 2nd c)

De Accentibus 25
disyllabis autem, si prima [loco] producta fuerit syllaba, habebit in se
circumflexum accentum, ut Rôma rhêtor brûma vîta prîma. si vero prima
syllaba positione longa fuerit aut brevis, acutum tonum in prima reperies,



Hyginus Gromaticus  (AD 98–117)

Constitutio Limitum [sp.] 150.2, 150.6, 151.9
diei et noctis horas aequet. ab hoc deinde qui est aequi-
noctiali proximus, brumalem appellant: nam et solisti-
tiali est ordinatus. septentrionali deinde sescontrarium
...
fines sol negatur excedere, ex circulo aequinoctiali ad
brumalem per diagonum extenditur ita, ut meridianum
circulum ex utraque parte medium secet. per hunc sol, hoc
...
quam regionem quidam sescontrariae partis appellant; et
quidquid a media terra in occidente inter brumalem et
meridianum circulum subiaceat, nostrae esse partis, si



Manilius, Marcus (fl. 1st century AD)

Astronomica 1.582, 1.591
quattuor et gradibus sua fila reducit ab aestu.
proximus hunc ultra brumalis nomine limes
ultima designat fugientis limina solis,
...
circulus, austrinas qui stringit et obsidet Arctos.
hic quoque brumalem per partes quinque relinquit,
et, quantum a nostro sublimis cardine gyrus,



Astronomica 2.267, 2.404, 2.418, 2.421, 2.659
aestas a Geminis, autumnus Virgine surgit,
bruma Sagittifero, ver Piscibus incipit esse.
quattuor in partes scribuntur sidera terna;
...
per titulos celebrare suos sedesque, memento
solstitium brumae, Capricornum opponere Cancro,
Lanigerum Librae par nox in utroque diesque est,
...
temporibus, Cancerque tibi, Capricorne, repugnat
femina femineo, quia brumae dissidet aestas.
hinc rigor et glacies nivibusque albentia rura,
hinc sitis et sudor nudusque in collibus orbis,
aestivosque dies aequat nox frigida brumae.
sic bellum natura gerit, discordat et annus,
...
ver Aries, Cererem Cancer Bacchumque ministrans
Libra, caper brumam genitusque ad frigora piscis.
nec non et duplici quae sunt conexa figura



Astronomica 3.229, 3.266, 3.345, 3.458, 3.478, …
ut propius nodis aliquod vel longius astrum est.
vix finit luces Cancer, vix bruma reducit,
quam brevis ille iacet, tam longus circulus hic est;
...
atque ibi conversis vicibus mutantur in horas
brumalis, noctemque dies lucemque tenebrae
hibernam referunt, alternaque tempora vincunt.
...
et, quanto ad gelidas propius quis venerit Arctos,
tam magis effugiunt oculos brumalia signa,
vixque ortis occasus erit. si longius inde
...
cesserit, ut, senis fuerit si longior horis
brumali nox forte die, Capricornus in horam
dimidiam attollat luces, et Aquarius horam
...
[praecipuosque gerunt varianda ad tempora motus]
hac vice descendunt noctes a sidere brumae
tollunturque dies, annique invertitur orbis,
solstitium tardi dum fit sub sidere Cancri;
tumque diem brumae nox aequat, tempora noctis
longa dies, similique redit, quam creverat, actu.
...
quaeque infra veniet spatio divisa sub aequo
per quinquagenas complet sua munera brumas.
quemque locum superat nascens horoscopos, ille
...
solstitium facit et summo versatur Olympo.
Parte ex adversa brumam Capricornus inertem
per minimas cogit luces et maxima noctis
...
tantum quod victas usque ad se vincere noctes
ex ipsa iubet, ad brumae dum tempora surgant.
tum Liber gravida descendit plenus ab ulmo



Astronomica 4.253, 4.326
addis et in vestes studium mercemque fugantem
frigora, brumalem servans per saecula sortem,
qua retrahis ductas summa ad fastigia noctes
...
temporis articulo sub quo censetur et ipse,
quod facit aequalis luces brumalibus umbris
cognatamque gerit diverso in cardine legem;



Porphyrio, Pomponius (flourished during the 2nd century A.D.)

Commentum in Horati Epistulas 1.11.19.1
uacua pro illis tunc moribus fuisse.
Per brvmam Tiberis. Quis enim tunc nataret?
Sextili [sextili] mense: Augusto.



Apuleius Madaurensis (AD 124-170)

De Mundo 13.7
notatae. Ortus quippe accepimus aequinoctialem
et solstitialem et brumalem, quibus occasus
redduntur eadem interuallorum ratione conuersa[e].



De Mundo 23.18
purgantur. Tepores frigus glaciale mitificant et
brumalis austeritas terrestrium uiscerum uenas
remittit. Et pars gignentium, alia adolescentium,



Gellius, Aulus (AD 130 - 180)

Noctes Atticae pr.9.7.1
syllaba prima quonam sit modulo pronuntiandum.
VII De conuersione foliorum in arbore olea brumali et
solstitiali die; deque fidibus id temporis ictu alieno sonan-



Noctes Atticae 2.22.6.1, 2.22.7.1
qui appellatur ἰσημερινός, aut "solstitialis", quae sunt θεριναὶ
τροπαί, aut "brumalis", quae sunt χειμεριναὶ τροπαί. Item
cadit sol non in eundem semper locum. Fit enim similiter
occasus eius aut "aequinoctialis" aut "solstitialis" aut
"brumalis". Qui uentus igitur ab oriente uerno, id est
aequinoctiali, uenit, nominatur "eurus" ficto uocabulo, ut



Noctes Atticae 3.10.4.3
neque ipse zodiacus septenario numero caret; nam in septi-
mo signo fit solstitium a bruma, in septimo bruma a sol-
stitio, in septimo aequinoctium ab aequinoctio. Dies deinde



Noctes Atticae 9.7.pr.1, 9.7.1.2, 9.7.3.4
De conuersione foliorum in arbore olea brumali et solstitiali die;
deque fidibus id temporis ictu alieno sonantibus.
Volgo et scriptum et creditum est folia olearum arborum
brumali et solstitiali die conuerti et quae pars eorum fuerit
inferior atque occultior, eam supra fieri atque exponi ad
...
crae historiae primo satis compertam esse satisque super ea
constare adfirmat: neruias in fidibus brumali die alias digitis
pelli, alias sonare.



Festus, Sextus Pompeius (AD late 2nd c.)

De Verborum Significatione 306.66
pho: "nunc meae militiae astutia
opus est; subcenturia." Subru-
mari dicuntur haedi, cum ad
mammam admoventur, quia ea



Iuvenalis, Decimus Iunius (late 1st and early 2nd century AD)

Saturae 3.102
concutitur; flet, si lacrimas conspexit amici,
nec dolet; igniculum brumae si tempore poscas,
accipit endromidem; si dixeris "aestuo," sudat.



Saturae 6.153
quodque domi non est, sed habet uicinus, ematur.
mense quidem brumae, cum iam mercator Iason
clausus et armatis obstat casa candida nautis,



Saturae 9.67
alter emendus erit, namque hic non sufficit, ambo
pascendi. quid agam bruma spirante? quid, oro,
quid dicam scapulis puerorum aquilone Decembri



Saturae 14.273
hic tamen ancipiti figens uestigia planta
uictum illa mercede parat, brumamque famemque
illa reste cauet: tu propter mille talenta



Ampelius, Lucius (AD 3rd – 4th c)

Liber Memorialis 1.4.5
cecaumene dicitur neque incolitur ob nimiam vim ar-
doris; brumalem et solstitialem sub quibus habitatur
sunt enim temperatissimi; per quos oblicus circulus



Chalcidius (AD 4th c.) 

Ex Graecis Conversiones 18.8
despicit Armipotens; sextus Phaethontius ardor
suspicit excelsum brumali frigore sidus.
Plectricanae citharae septem discriminibus quos



Servius Honoratus, Maurus ( AD late fourth-century and early fifth-century)

In Vergilii Aeneidos Libros 2.472.1, 2.472.2
tvmidvm qui semper irascatur. brvma id est hiemps.
dicta autem 'bruma' quasi βραχὺ ἦμαρ, id est brevis dies. est
autem, ut hic locus indicat, generis feminini, numeri singularis.



In Vergilii Aeneidos Libros 6.205.1
brvmali frigore viscvm bene 'brumali' addidit: tunc
enim maturum est et auri imitatur colorem, nam nova fronde viret.



In Vergilii Georgicon Libros 1.211.1, 1.211.2, 1.211.4
vsqve svb extremvm b. i. i. id est non usque ad bru-
mae finem, sed circa: nam bruma finitur viii. K. Ianuariarum die;
et iste non usque ad ipsum diem dicit serendum. intractabilis autem
bruma dicta a brevioribus diebus.



In Vergilii Georgicon Libros 1.230.2
ad medias prvinas hoc est quod supra ait "usque
sub extremum brumae i. i". 'medias' autem 'pruinas' abusive ipsas
hiemes posuit: medium enim pro legitimo dixit.



In Vergilii Georgicon Libros 3.321.1
nec tota clavdes id est faenum praebebis tota bruma.






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