Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Brumalia--Ancient Latin Sources: Pre 46 BC, Republican Calendar

Bruma/Brumalia and the Old Republic Calendar

There are two basic types of information about the calendar of the Roman Republic: actual calendars themselves, called fasti; and literary references to calendar events. This article covers all available pre-Julian sources which mention Bruma or should mention it if it were a festival in the old Roman Republic.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Brumalia--Ancient Latin Sources: Statistics and Concordance

This article is a posting of all available occurrences of the word "bruma" and its variants in the extant ancient Latin literature available from Packard Humanities Institute Classic Latin Text.

The information is posted here as a research tool and reference for those interested in the question of bruma/Brumalia the winter solstice and its relationship to the origins of Christmas.

O Emmanuel: December 23rd, The “O Antiphons”


O Come, O Come, Emmanuel

Hymn Verse:
O Come, O Come, Emmanuel,
And ransom captive Israel,
That mourns in lonely exile here
Until the Son of God appear.
Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel Shall come to thee, O Israel.

Latin Text:
O Emmanuel, Rex et legifer noster,
expectratio gentium, et Salvator earum:
veni ad salvandum nos,
Domines, Deus noster.

English Translation:
O Emmanuel, Our King and Lawgiver,
The Desire of the nations, and their Savior:
Come and save us, O Lord our God.
LSB ”O Antiphons” under Hymn 357 and in Treasury of Daily Prayer p. 1046:

O Emmanuel, our king and our Lord,
the anointed for the nations and
their | Savior: *
Come and save us, O | Lord our God.
Emmanuel is the Hebrew עִמָּנוּאֵל “God With Us.” This title for Christ refers Him as the Restoration of fallen sinful humanity to the presence of God. Drawing on Isaiah 7:14 this title is explicitly incarnational, that is, it refers to the fact of God taking upon Himself human flesh. This final antiphon summarizes the

Christ Myth Theory: Horus? Born of a Virgin? Not!

One of the many points falsely claimed in Christ Myth Theory about the supposed dependence of Christ upon the legends of Egypt is the claim that Horus was born of a virgin.
The claim is utterly false.

Egyptian mythology is not a single, monolithic source. The legends differed from time to time and region to region. But there is a very consistent treatment of this particular point in Egyptian mythology.

This post contains graphic language and visually graphic Egyptian artwork about this particular claim. Both the language and the artwork are necessary to demonstrate the claim as invalid. However some readers may not wish to go further in this post.

Monday, December 22, 2014

Christ Myth Theory Interview on Issues Etc 12/19/14

3. The Christ Myth Theory – Pr. Joseph Abrahamson, 12/19/14

Issues, Etc. Radio interview about my article from last week.

“Christ Myth Theory: Jesus Is a Copy Cat” by Joseph Abrahamson

O Rex Gentium: December 22nd, The “O Antiphons”

christosopantokratorCome, Desire Of Nations

Hymn Verse:

O Come, Desire of nations, bind
All peoples in one heart and mind;
Bid Thou our sad divisions cease,
And be Thyself our King of Peace.
Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel Shall come to thee, O Israel.
 Latin Text:
O Rex Gentium, et desideratus earum,
lapisque angularis, qui facis utraque unum:
veni, et salva hominem,
quem de limo formasti.

English Translation:
O King of the Gentiles, and their Desire,
The Corner-stone, Who madest both one:
Come and save man,
Whom You have formed out of the dust of the earth.

LSB ”O Antiphons” under Hymn 357 and in Treasury of Daily Prayer p. 1042:
O King of the nations, the ruler
they long for, the cornerstone
uniting all | people: *
Come and save us all,
whom You formed | out of clay.

Rex Gentium means King of Nations, based primarily on Isaiah 10:11, though the title for Christ is used in many other passages. This antiphon is a confession that the Christ is the Savior of all nations. The petition is based on the fact that all humanity is descended from Adam, whom God formed out of the dust of the ground (Genesis 2:7). Their fall into sin was the fall of all nations from God. The Promise of in the curse on Satan is the Promise to all nations. All nations were

Sunday, December 21, 2014

O Oriens: December 21st, The “O Antiphons”

O Come, Thou Dayspring From On High

Hymn Verse:
O Come, Thou Dayspring from on high,
and cheer us by thy drawing nigh;
disperse the gloomy clouds of night
and death’s dark shadow put to flight.
Latin Text:

O Oriens, splendor lucis aeternae,
et sol justitiae:
veni, et illumina sedentes in tenebris,
et umbra mortis.
English Translation:

O Radiant Dawn, splendor of eternal light, sun of justice:
Come, shine on those who dwell in darkness
and the shadow of death.
LSB ”O Antiphons” under Hymn 357 and in Treasury of Daily Prayer p. 1039:

O Dayspring, splendor of light
ever- | lasting: *
Come and enlighten those who
sit in darkness and in the shad- | ow
of death.
Oriens means “Dayspring” or “Morning Star” or “Sunrise.” This title for Christ is found throughout Scripture. The purpose of this title is point out that Christ is the light of the world, that His gift of salvation is like the dawn of a new day after a dark night of terror. The theme of the O Antiphons builds again. Here in Oriens the Creator of light on the first day. He is the Creator of the Sun, Moon, and Stars on the fourth day (Wednesday); which He appointed not only to give light to the world, but to be for signs and to mark seasons. He is the Greater Light that has come into this world.

The theme builds from creation, to the Promise to Abraham, to the Incarnation, to Transfiguration, to the Resurrection of Christ, and to the Throne of Christ in His Kingdom of Glory.

Study on O Oriens

In the beginning the world was shapeless and empty. It could do nothing for itself. “Darkness was on the face of the deep.” The Word of God declared “Let

Saturday, December 20, 2014

O Clavis David: December 20th, The “O Antiphons”

O Come, Thou Key of David, Come

Hymn Verse:
O Come, Thou Key of David, come,
And open wide our heav’nly home,
Make safe the way that leads on high,
And close the path to misery.
Latin Text:

O Clavis David, et sceptrum domus Israel,
qui aperis, et nemo claudit; claudis, et nemo aperuit:
veni, et educ vinctum de domo carceris,
sedentem in tenebris, et umbra mortis.
English Translation

O Key of David, O royal Power of Israel,
controlling at your will the gate of heaven:
Come, break down the prison walls of death
for those who dwell in darkness and the shadow of death;
and lead your captive people into freedom.
LSB “O Antiphons” under Hymn 357 and in Treasury of Daily Prayer p. 1035:

O Key of David and scepter of theHouse of Israel, You open and no one
can close, You close and no one
can | open: *
Come and rescue the prisoners who
are in darkness and the shad- | ow
of death.
Clavis means Key. This title for Christ is from Revelation 3:7 and is drawn from God’s commission of Eliakim son of Hilkiah in Isaiah 22:22. The title Key of

Friday, December 19, 2014

Redeeming Holy Days from Pagan Lies: Christmas and Sigillaria

Do the Nativity sets Christians use actually have their origins in the pagan Roman festival called Sigillaria?

Redeeming Holy Days from Pagan Lies: Christmas and Saturnalia

Did Christianity Steal the Date of Pagan Winter Solstice Celebrations? The Roman celebration discussed in this article is the multi-day festival of Saturnalia.

The Mis-Use of Roman Sources: Saturnalia

In these articles we have seen the texts from the early Christians that show their reasons why they calculated particular dates for the Incarnation and Birth of Christ. These dates were based on the Passover texts. Even their calculation for the dates of the Creation of the universe centered on the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Christ at the Passover.

O Radix Jesse: December 19th, The “O Antiphons”

O Come, Thou Rod of Jesse’s Stem

Hymn Verse:

Jesse Tree, Matthew 1, Capuchin's Bible, c. 1180, Bibliothèque nationale de France, ParisO Come, Thou Rod of Jesse’s stem,
From ev’ry foe deliver them
That trust Thy mighty power to save,
And give them vict’ry o’er the grave.
Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel Shall come to thee, O Israel.
Latin Text:

O Radix Jesse, qui stas in signum populorum,
super quem continebunt reges os suum,
quem gentes deprecabuntur:
veni ad liberandum nos, jam noli tardare.
English Translation:

O Root of Jesse, standing as a sign among the peoples;
Before You kings will shut their mouths,
To You the nations will make their prayer:
Come and deliver us, and delay no longer.
LSB ”O Antiphons” under Hymn 357 and in Treasury of Daily Prayer p. 1032:

O Root of Jesse, standing as an ensign
before the peoples, before whom all
kings are mute, to whom the nations
will do | homage: *
Come quickly to de- | liver us.
Radix is the Latin word “Root.” The reference is to Isaiah 11:1 and 10:

1 There shall come forth a Rod from the stem of Jesse,
And a Branch shall grow out of his roots.
10 “And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse,
Who shall stand as a banner to the people;
For the Gentiles shall seek Him,
And His resting place shall be glorious.”
This title for Christ focuses on the fact that He is the legitimate Heir to the throne of David. He fulfills the promise made to Abraham and renewed in David. The genealogy of Christ in Matthew chapter 1 emphasizes that Jesus is the legal Inheritor of the title “Son of David” the son of Abraham. The prophecy in Isaiah and elsewhere paints the parallel that the Son of God is the Root of Jesse and ALSO the branch that grows from the stem of Jesse. The Tree and its branches represent the inheritance of the Davidic Throne according to God’s Promise.  The tree symbolism also calls to remembrance Christ as the Tree of Life in Genesis 2-3, in Proverbs, and in Revelation 2:7 and 22:2.

The fact that God, the Creator of Jesse and David would choose to become the human Son of David, humbling Himself to offer His life in the place of sinners for

Thursday, December 18, 2014

Redeeming Holy Days from Pagan Lies: Christmas and Juvenalia

Did Christianity Steal the Date of Pagan Winter Solstice Celebrations? Juvenalia is one of those Roman festivals that is claimed as a winter solstice celebration that was borrowed or baptized by Christians for Christmas. But was it even a winter solstice celebration?

The Mis-Use of Roman Records-Juvenalia

When modern critics of Christian Christmas make claims that Christians stole the solstice celebrations they usually mix together their ideas of Roman, Germanic, Nordic, and Celtic winter celebrations into an anachronistic mash of impossibly conflicting claims. The method is to overwhelm people with their supposed "information." There is just too much data for the average person to absorb. Viewers and readers assume that the people that put the books or programs together must know what they are talking about since they seem to know so much.

O Adonai: December 18th, The “O Antiphons”

O Come, O Come, Thou Lord of Might

Moses On Mt Sinai
The Hymn:
O come, O come, Thou Lord of might,
Who to Thy tribes on Sinai’s height
In ancient times didst give the law
In cloud and majesty and awe.
Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel Shall come to thee, O Israel.

Latin Text:
O Adonai, et dux domus Israel,
qui Moyse in igne flammae rubi apparuisti,
et ei in Sina legem dedisti:
veni ad redimendum nos in brachio extento.

English Translation:
O Adonai, and leader of the House of Israel,
Who appeared to Moses in the fire of the burning bush
And gave him the law on Sinai:
Come and redeem us with an outstretched arm.

LSB ”O Antiphons” under Hymn 357 and in Treasury of Daily Prayer p. 1029:
O Adonai and ruler of the house of
Israel, who appeared to Moses in
the burning bush and have him the
Law on | Sinai: *
Come with an outstretched arm and re- | deem us.

Adonai is the Hebrew word “Lord.” The word Adonai/Lord is used in place of the name of God in the reading of the text and in most English translations of the Bible. This antiphon is a confession that Jesus is the same Lord Who revealed Himself by name to Moses in the burning bush (Exodus 3). He is the same Lord who descended upon Mt. Sinai and declared the Ten Commandments in the hearing of all Israel (Exodus 19-20). He is the Angel of the Lord who protected

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

O Sapientia: December 17th, The “O Antiphons”

O Come, Thou Wisdom From on High

Christ_Cefalu_1145-60The Hymn:
O come, Thou Wisdom from on high,
Who orderest all things mightily;
To us the path of knowledge show,
And teach us in her ways to go.

Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel shall come to thee, O Israel.

Latin Text:
O Sapientia, quae ex ore Altissimi prodiisti,
attingens a fine usque ad finem,
fortiter suaviterque disponens omnia:
veni ad docendum nos viam prudentiae.

English Translation:
O Wisdom, who proceeds from the mouth of the Most High,
Who reaches from one end to the other,
Who mightily and sweetly orders all things;
Come to teach us the way of prudence.

LSB “O Antiphons” under Hymn 357 and in Treasury of Daily Prayer p. 1025:
O Wisdom, proceeding from the mouth
of the Most High, pervading and
permeating all creation, mightily
ordering | all things*
Come and teach us the way
of | prudence.

The Antiphon focuses us on Wisdom as both a title and an attribute of Christ, that He is the Word of God who speaks for God, that He is with God as creator of all things, and ruler of all things through his Wisdom. The petition we bring to Divine Wisdom is that He come and teach us His way of prudence; to teach us to govern ourselves and guard ourselves wisely in this world avoiding danger and evil.

A Study for O Sapienta

Sapienta or Wisdom is the title given to the Messiah in the prophecy of Isaiah 11. Here we have both the Spirit of Wisdom as equated with the Spirit of the Lord, and the fact that He works through the judgements of His mouth and the

The “O Antiphons”

plate of Veni, Veni Emmanuel from Neale's Hymnal NotedThe hymn “O, Come, O, Come, Emmanuel” (TLH 62; LW 31; CW 32; ; ELH 110; LSB 357) is a rendition of the medieval “O Antiphons” also called the “Greater Antiphons.”

An Antiphon is a selection of Scripture and prayer chanted responsively by the officiant and assembly. The purpose of the Antiphon is to set the focus for the reading selected for that particular day of the Church year.

The O Antiphons were to be sung during Vespers one on each day seven days before the feast of the Nativity of Christ: that is, from December 17th through the 23rd. Each Antiphon focuses on a Scriptural title for Christ as He is named in Biblical prophecy and a petition to Christ to come fulfilling the promise made through that title and prophecy.
The Messianic prophecies in Isaiah form the heart of the seven antiphons, which draw particularly on Isaiah 11.

The traditional order of the seven antiphons is
(1) Sapientia: “O Wisdom” Isaiah 11:2-3,
(2) Adonai: “O Lord of Might” Isaiah 11:4-5,
(3) Radix Jesse: “O Root/Branch/Rod of Jesse” Isaiah 11:1 and 10,
(4) Clavis David: “O Key of David” Isaiah 22:22,
(5) Oriens: “O Dayspring” Isaiah 9:2,
(6) Rex Gentium: “O Desire of Nations/King of Gentiles” Isaiah 2:4; 9:6; 11:10-12,
(7) Emmanuel: “O Emmanuel” Isaiah 7:14.

When one takes first letters of the titles for Christ in the antiphons and reads them from right to left they form a Latin acrostic “Ero Cras” which means “I will

Saturday, December 13, 2014

Christ-Myth Theory--Copy-Cat Theory

This particular claim toward pagan sources for Christianity and Christian Holy Days goes under various names: Jesus Myth Theory, Jesus Mythicism, Mythicism, Copy-cat Theory, and probably other terms.

The basic claim is that Christ is a fake: an unoriginal copy-cat of some other supposedly more ancient pagan god or gods.

These claims are bunk. Both historians and Biblical theologians have been very thorough in debunking these claims since their earliest times.

A common example that circulates on the web, Twitter, and Facebook is the following graphic:

Most people who share this kind of post do not have the intellectual integrity to bother checking up on these claims. And having a reputation as an Atheist thinker doesn't seem to keep even famous "thinkers" from falling for this fictional bunk.

But the fact is that this falsehood is widely and popularly promoted by people who claim to be objective. Yet they couldn't be bothered to actually do the research.

A short list of recent so-called documentaries that have promoted this falsehood:
A couple of recent books popularizing this fiction written by well known Atheist authors:
 [These are all 2005 and after, list is from Christ Myth Theory.]

But Hitchens, Dawkins, Maher, Atwill, Dan Brown and others are merely repeating the creative fiction of anti-Christian zealots from the 18th century and after. Back then it was hard for people to check up on the scholarship of a published work. Some of these original thinkers were:

  • Constantin François Chassebœuf de Volney (1757–1820) and 
  • Charles-François Dupuis (1742–1809) both argued that Christianity derived from a mixing of various pagan religions. [The Historical Jesus in the Twentieth Century: 1900-1950 By Walter P. Weaver, 1999, pp. 45, 69] [see also here]
  • Robert Taylor (1784-1844) began study to become an Anglican clergyman and turned radically against the Church. He claimed that Christianity was a mish-mash of solar myths in his The Diegesis (1829) and began a society to undermine the Church and challenge lectures and debates.
  • Richard Carlile (1790-1843) joined up with Robert Taylor in 1829 to form the "Infidel Home Missionary Tour", influencing a young student named Charles Darwin. Taylor was dubbed "The Devil's Chaplin" and they began circulating a publication called "The Devil's Pamphlet." Carlile helped form one of the first Atheist groups in England. [A publication of sermons from The Devil's Pulpit with a short biography of Taylor and his work with Carlile]
  • Bruno Bauer (1809-82)--Student of Hegel, associate of Nietzsche, and inspiration for Albert Schweitzer's The Quest for the Historical Jesus [ praise on p. 159 in Chapter 11 describing Bauer here]. Always anti-Christian and antisemitic in his writings, in 1840 his work turned toward described Jesus as a fusion of Roman, Greek,  and Jewish theology. [see also here]
  • Gerald Massey (1828–1907) an English poet and Spiritualist author, affected by the Romantic movement, became interested in Egyptology and creatively asserted that Christ and Christianity was borrowed from Egyptian mythology, particularly Horus. The initial work was The Natural Genesis in 1883 (v. 1, v. 2), which was adopted by Madam Blavatsky and her new religion of Theosophy.
There are many other contributers to this stream of creative fiction. It is apparent by looking at their life and work that they had all their own vested interests in discrediting Christianity. The Wikipedia article on Christ Myth Theory is actually very helpful at gaining source information. It does contain some chronological inaccuracies about the movement. But a bit of careful reading can clear up the matter of who invented which idea when.

For many who pass this falsehood on there is an excellent and short video by Pr. Hans Fiene's video commentary from Lutheran Satire titled "Horus Ruins Christmas" may be enough to help. The video is focused on the Horus variant, but includes Mithra and others.

Pr. Fiene recently revisited this issue with a new video titled "Horus Reads the Internet."

But there is a lot more background to this series of attacks against Christ, Christianity, and Christian Worship.

The following is a list of supposed originals that they claim formed the basis for Jesus. The list is mainly from James Holding's very helpful website. Documentation for sources and rebuttals can be found at that website.
Adonis -- The Greek deity.
Alcides (Or Hercules) --The Greek strongman/demigod.
Alexander of Abonuteichos -- A charismatic figure who started a quasi-religious movement; this is more of a claim of a social parallel.
Apollonius of Tyana -- Pagan performer of miracles and traveller.
Attis -- Phrygian and later Greco-Roman demigod.
Baal -- Ancient Near Eastern deity.
Balder -- Norse deity.
Beddru of Japan  -- a non-existent entity.
Chu Chulainn -- Celtic hero.
Crite -- non-existent figure.
Dazhdbog -- Russian heroic figure.
Deva Tat -- Heroic figure from Siam.
Dionysus [Bacchus] -- Greek god of wine.
The Flavian Dynasty --- Caesars of Rome that supposedly invented Christ.
Hesus -- Deity associated with druids.
Horus -- Egyptian deity. Also covers Osiris.
Krishna -- Hindu deity.
Mithra -- Persian deity.
Osiris -- Egyptian deity.
Prometheus -- Greek demigod.
Quetzalcoatl -- Mesoamerican deity.
Romulus -- co-founder of Rome.
Salivahana -- Indian teacher.
Serapis -- Mediterranean deity.
Tammuz -- Sumerian shepherd-god.
Zamloxis -- Thracian hero.
Zoar -- Unknown figure.
Zoroaster -- Religious founder.
James Holding also published a book dealing specifically with this attack against Christianity.

Holding, James Patrick. Shattering the Christ Myth. s.l.: Xulon Press, 2008.

Finding research online to debunk these claims is not actually a difficult thing to do.

One Example: Jesus is Mithra

The following link is an example of a page promoting this falsehood. The article is by a person named Kevin Williams.

 Jesus as the Reincarnation of Mithra.

What we should note is how academic or scholarly it pretends to be. Consider just for example this point in William's post:

7. Reverend Charles Biggs stated: "The disciples of Mithra formed an organized church, with a developed hierarchy. They possessed the ideas of Mediation, Atonement, and a Savior, who is human and yet divine, and not only the idea, but a doctrine of the future life. They had a Eucharist, and a Baptism, and other curious analogies might be pointed out between their system and the church of Christ (The Christian Platonists, p. 240).
What the text actually says in context is the following:
The disciples of Mithra formed an organized church 
with a developed hierarchy. They possessed the ideas 
of Mediation, Atonement, and a Saviour, who is human 
and yet divine, and not only the idea, but a doctrine of 
the Future Life. They had a Eucharist, and a Baptism, 
and other curious analogies might be pointed out be 
tween their system and the Church of Christ.  Most 
of these conceptions, no doubt, are integral parts of 
a religion much older than Christianity. But when we 
consider how strange they are to the older polytheism 
of Greece and Rome, and when we observe further that 
Mithraism did not come into full vogue till the time of 
Hadrian, that is to say till the age of Gnosticism, we 
shall hardly be wrong in judging that resemblances 
were pushed forward, exaggerated, modified, with a 
special view to the necessities of the conflict with the 
new faith, and that differences, such as the barbarous 
superstitions of the Avesia, were kept sedulously in 
the background with the same object. Paganism was 
copying Christianity, and by that very act was lowering 
her arms. [emphasis mine]
Yes, simply looking up the references used as evidence in support for their arguments usually undercuts what they claim.

There are two websites I'd suggest for rebutals specific to the Mithra claim. But take these with a grain of salt. Tekton, for instance, doesn't accurately deal with the Dec. 25th date in two ways.

First, the establishing of this date for the celebration of Christ's birth is very early in the Church [by the end of the 2nd century].

Second, there is no birth date for Mithra given in the ancient sources. The association of Dec. 25 with Mithra was a conjecture by a scholar named Cumont.

The study of Mithraism is itself very useful. And, in fact, you can in less than a day learn all there is to know about the actual textual evidence left to us about this religion. The iconography and art would take a bit longer, but those are left to wide and wild interpretations.

A valuable website with all you would ever need to know about what is really known about Mithraism has been put together by Roger Pearse.

Tuesday, December 09, 2014

Catechism Series, Part 14: Christian Questions and Answers

Steadfast Throwdown

In this final part of our Catechism series with Pr. Joe Abrahamson, we discuss the “Christian Questions with their Answers.” Did Luther really compose them? Why are they not in some editions of the Catechism? How do these questions and answers help us prepare for partaking of Christ’s Body and Blood? Pr. Abrahamson also wraps up our series by saying the Catechism is not just for confirmation, but for all of life.

Friday, December 05, 2014

Redeeming Holy Days: Resources on Christmas Presents and Strenae


A working bibliography of resources relevant to the issue of whether or not Christmas gift giving is borrowed from the Roman old pagan practice of giving Strenae [New Years gift] at Roman New Year.

“A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), STRENAE.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“ANF03. Latin Christianity: Its Founder, Tertullian - Christian Classics Ethereal Library.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“A Testimony Against Several Prophane and Superstitious Customs, Now Practised by Some in New-England.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“CHURCH FATHERS: On Idolatry (Tertullian).” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“C. Suetonius Tranquillus, Caligula, Chapter 42.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“C. Suetonius Tranquillus, Divus Augustus, Chapter 57.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“C. Suetonius Tranquillus, Tiberius, Chapter 34.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“Gifts at Christmas, ‘Strenae’ on 1st January.” Roger Pearse. Accessed December 4, 2014.

Graevius, Johannes Georgius. “Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum : in quo continentur lectissimi quique scriptores, qui superiori aut nostro seculo Romanae reipublicae rationem, disciplinam, leges, instituta, sacra, artesque togatas ac sagatas explicarunt & illustrarunt, / congestus a Joanne Georgio Graeuio. ; Accesserunt variae & accuratae tabulae aeneae.” Academic Library. Bayerische StaatsBibliothek digital, 1699 1694.

“Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898), Strenae.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“Latin Word Study Tool.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

Marquardt, Joachim. Römische Staatsverwaltung. New York: Arno Press, 1975.

“Martial, Epigrammata, Book 8, XXXIII.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“Martial, Epigrammata, Book 13, XXVII Petalium Caryotarum.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“Martin of Braga.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 3, 2014.

“Martin of Braga.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Council of Trullo.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“Ovid Fasti Book I.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“Ovid: Fasti I.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“P. Ovidius Naso, Fasti, Book 1.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“Seneca Epistles Book 2.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“Still Asking for Those Strenae at New Year?” Roger Pearse. Accessed December 4, 2014.

“The Fathers Of The Church A New Translation Vol...” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“T. Maccius Plautus, Stichus, Act 3, Scene 2.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

“T. Maccius Plautus, Stichus, or The Parasite Rebuffed, Act 3, Scene 2.” Accessed December 4, 2014.

Tuesday, December 02, 2014

Catechism Series, Part 13: The Table of Duties

Steadfast Throwdown

In part 13 of our Catechism Series with Pr. Joe Abrahamson, we take a brief look at the “Table of Duties” in Martin Luther’s Small Catechism. How does this section of the Catechism instruct us in the “holy orders” to which God calls us? What are the “two kingdoms” and the “three estates” that this compilation of Bible passages present to us for daily living as Christians?