Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Redeeming Christian Holy Days From Pagan Lies: Walpurgisnacht

The evening of April 30th through May 1st is a significant date in the modern neo-Pagan and Wiccan calendar. It is called: Beltane, Witches'-eve, Witches' Sabbath, May eve', May Day, and Walpurgisnacht (and variants). Today the main significance that is emphasized it that this date is exactly 6 months opposite that of Samhain/Hallowe'en and therefore a significant Pagan date that has been somewhat "baptized" by the Church.

God willing, we will re-examine Samhain/Hallowe'en-All Saints' Day more thoroughly again later in the year, expanding on the article from last fall.

There are several historical issues to separate out and examine for these May 1st festivals.

What we will see, based on the actual historical evidence that survives to us, is that May 1st was a day dedicated in 870 AD to honoring St. Walburga; May Day/Beltane traditions claimed as pagan precursors tied to the 1st of May do not date back to that time--that is, the so-called pagan rituals actually are not tied to May 1 until later. And many of these rituals actually date from much later.

We will look at the histories of:
  • St. Walburga/Walpugrisnacht
  • The Origins of Beltane
  • When "Maying" Traditions Came Into Being
  • The Shift Away From Walburga to Paganism


Walpurgisnacht-St. Walburga's Eve

St. Walburga is commemorated on February 25th, her birth day, and on May 1, the day she was canonized. She was canonized by the Italian Pope Adiran II (r. 867-872) in 870 A.D.

She is commemorated in Lutheran and Roman liturgical traditions in most of the countries on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea as well as inland to the Czech Republic.

Walpurgisnacht ("Walpurga's night") is the German and Dutch name for April 30th, the eve' of St. Walburga's Day. The festival is known as "Valborgsmässoafton in Swedish, Vappu in Finnish, Volbriöö, (Walpurgi öö) in Estonian, Valpurgijos naktis in Lithuanian, Valpurģu nakts or Valpurģi in Latvian, čarodějnice or Valpuržina noc in Czech, chódotypalenje Lower Sorbian and chodojtypalenje in Upper Sorbian." (wikipedia)

For people who grew up outside these cultural traditions the most likely way that they know of Walpurgisnacht is through Faust, Gothic literature, horror fiction, or the Neo-Pagan and Wiccan movements.

Who Was She?

Walburga was born in Devonshire, England; probably in 710. She was the daughter of St. Richard, an under-king of the  West Saxons. Her mother, Winna, was sister of St. Boniface, Apostle of Germany. She had to brothers, Willibald and Winibald.

When she was eleven years old her father left her in the charge of the abbess of Wimborne where she spent the next twenty-six years as a nun. Her father took her brothers on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Wimborne gave her a very good education and skills in reading and writing. She is considered to be the first English female author. She wrote a biography of her brother, St. Winibald, and a Latin travel log of her brother St. Willibald's travels in Palestine. Her father died within a year after he had left England.

St. Boniface was organizing the church and mission work in Germany and called women to help. This is the first time on record of such a call. In 748 Walburga was sent with many other nuns. She was eventually appointed abbess at Heidenheim and became beloved by everyone through the community and countryside.

 Walburga passed away in Heidenheim on February 25, 777. She was canonized on May 1st, 870 by Pope Adrian II. May 1st is Walpurga's Commemoration Day, the evening before is Walpurgisnacht/Walburga's Night. [source]

"Other spellings: Valborg (the Swedish name for her), Walburge, Valpuri, Auboué, Avangour, Avongourg, Falbourg, Gaubourg, Gualbourg, Valburg, Valpurge, Vaubouer, Vaubourg, Walbourg, Walpurd, Warpurg. She is also known by the seemingly unrelated names Perche and Eucharis." [source]

Note especially the date, 870 and that she was canonized in Rome by an Italian Pope. Walburga had been adored widely while she still lived. At the end of the 8th century after her death she was held in high esteem by many people throughout the region of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.

Through that period there is no record of witchcraft associated with the evening of April 30 or May 1.

The Origins of Beltane

A fairly standard Neo-Pagan/Wiccan description of Beltane can be found in what Rosemary Ellen Guiley wrote as part of her article on "The Wheel of the Year":
Beltane Eve (also Beltain). One of the great Celtic solar festivals, celebrated in earlier times with bonfires. It is observed April 30. Beltane is an Irish term meaning "great fire." Beltane rites celebrate birth, fertility and the blossoming of all life, personified by the union of the Goddess and Sun God, also known in Christianized lore as King Winter and Queen May. Celebrants jump over broom-sticks and dance around maypoles, both symbols of fertility. Great bonfires are lit. Offerings are left for FAIRIES. 
Beltane bonfires were believed to bring fertilitiy to crops, homes and livestock. People danced deosil, or clockwise, around the fires or crept between fires for good luck and protection against illness. Cattle were driven through fires for protection against illness. In Druidic times, the Druids lit the fires on hillsides as they uttered incantations. Beltane was Christianized by the church, which replaced Pagan rites with a church service and processional to the fields, where a priest lit the fires. (Rosemary Ellen Guiley's The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft, 2nd Edition, Checkmark Books, New York, 1999. Page 357)
But there are some very big problems with this summary.

 Guiley's claims are that Beltane is:
  • Celtic
  • A Solar date event
  • A Festival
  • Celebrated in earlier times with bonfires
  • Rites celebrate birth, fertility and the blossoming of all life, 
  • personified by the union of the Goddess and Sun God, 
  • These are also known in Christianized lore as King Winter and Queen May. 
  • Celebrants jump over broom-sticks - a fertility symbol
  • dance around maypoles - a fertility symbol. 
  • Offerings are left for FAIRIES.  
  • bonfires were believed to bring fertilitiy to crops, homes and livestock. 
  • People danced deosil, or clockwise, around the fires or crept between fires for good luck and protection against illness. 
  • Cattle were driven through fires for protection against illness. 
  • In Druidic times, the Druids lit the fires on hillsides as they uttered incantations. 
  • Beltane was Christianized by the church, 
  • The Church replaced Pagan rites with a church service and processional to the fields, where a priest lit the fires. 
 First of all are the actual dates for Beltane and Samhain and other Celtic/"Pagan" holy days.

When And Where Was Beltane Celebrated?


In J. A. MacCulloc's 1911 The Religion of the Ancient Celts we find that the Celtic holy days were not determined originally (whenever that was) by lunar or solar calendar, and that only later (whenever that was) they were tied to the lunar calendar and then later again (whenever that was) to the solar calendar.
None of the four festivals is connected with the times of equinox and solstice. This points to the fact that originally the Celtic year was independent of these. But Midsummer day was also observed not only by the Celts, but by most European folk, the ritual resembling that of Beltane.
...
The festivals of Beltane and Midsummer may have arisen independently, and entered into competition with each other. Or Beltane may have been an early pastoral festival marking the beginning of summer when the herds went out to pasture, and Midsummer a more purely agricultural festival. And since their ritual aspect and purpose as seen in folk-custom are similar, they may eventually have borrowed each from the other. Or they may be later separate fixed dates of an earlier movable summer festival. For our purpose we may here consider them as twin halves of such a festival. Where Midsummer was already observed, the influence of the Roman calendar would confirm that observance. The festivals of the Christian year also affected the older observances. Some of the ritual was transferred to saints' days within the range of the pagan festival days...(MacCulloch 1911:257-8)
 In fact, the earliest extant historical reference to Beltane comes from a very late ninth or tenth century Irish glossary called Sanas Cormaic (or "Cormac's Glossary") thought to have been assembled by Cormac mac Cuilennáin (d. 908) Irish king and bishop of Munster. The basis for the modern text is the An Leabar Breac manuscript dating from the 15th century.  A translation can be found in Whitley Stokes 1868 version of John O'Donovan's translation on page 19:
BELLTAINE 'May-day' i.e. bil-tene i.e. lucky fire, i.e. two fires which Druids used to make with great incantations, and they used to bring the cattle [as a safeguard] against the diseases of each year to those fires [in marg.] they used to drive the cattle between them.
beltene indiu .i. for cetain 'May-day today, i.e. on a Wednesday', Southampton Psalter (Goidilica p. 44). now bealltaine, a fem ia-stem --Ed. 
 The actual manuscript is Royal Irish Academy Ms 23 P 16 (Leabhar Breac), cat. no. 1230, pp 263-72, which reads:
Belltaine .i. bil tene .i. tene shoinmech .i. dáthene dognítis
druidhe triathaircedlu (no cotinchetlaib) móraib combertis
nacethrai arthedmannaib cacha bliadna cusnaténdtibsin
[l]eictis nacethra etarru.
What is apparent in this citation is that "May-day" is not part of the original Irish but an interpretive note by O'Donovan. Also, the smaller print at the bottom of the citation in O'Donovan is a note from the book's editor, Whitley Stokes. Stokes refers to an eleventh century Psalter called the Southampton Psalter which he had translated in his book Goidelica.


Historian Ronald Hutton in his The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain, (Oxford University Press, 1996) pointed out that the only other evidence for the Beltane comes from Tochmare Emire paragraph 55 [English] in the Ulster Cycle: the original of which might possibly date back to the 8th or 9th century. In that text it is "Beltane at the summer's beginning" in contrast with Samhain as winter's beginning. (Hutton, p. 218) But the earliest manuscript for Tochmare Emire dates from the 15th-16th century.

These are the earliest examples of the word "Beltane". From this we could conclude:
  • that the word "Beltane" was Irish, and etymologically it probably meant something like "lucky fire"
  • as a date the word "Beltane" most likely meant "the beginning of Summer" and not a solar date, but it was probably equated with May 1 by the 10th century, 
  • that there was at least a legend if not the historical reality that 10th or 11th century Druids plied their magic to protect cows at "Beltane"--the "beginning of summer" or possibly a particular day-- by driving them through two great bonfires.
There is no mention of feasts, dances (clockwise or counter-), songs, broomsticks, poles, jumping, fertility, solar gods or goddesses, queens or kings, faeries, crops, or homes. There is no mention that the Christian church tried to replace this day. Both in the Glossary and in the Southampton Psalter (Christian sources) it is mentioned without any statements about suppression or supercession.

All of that stuff came later, some of it much much later. And very little of what was added could find any kind of legitimate Celtic-pagan heritage.

You now have all the "ancient" evidence about Beltane that exists. None of it can be shown to predate 900 A.D. Though it is not unreasonable to conjecture that the word "Beltane" and the ritual with the fires and the cattle may be earlier. But that remains conjecture, not documented history.

There is one more issue with this evidence. That issue is whether or not the word refers to the worship of the false god Ba'al as found in the Scriptures.

Beltane and Ba'al Worship

In the 1860s in a revision of his book The Two Babylons, Alexander Hislop referred to an Almanac published the same decade as he was writing, claiming that Nineveh's "Bel" = "Ba'al" the next step for Beltane was an obvious extension:
The worship of Bel and Astarte was very early introduced into Britain.... From Bel, the 1st of May is still called Beltane in the Almanac; and we have customs still lingering at this day among us, which prove how exactly the worship of Bel or Moloch (for both titles belonged to the same god) had been observed even in the northern parts of this island. (p. 103)
 Hislop's imaginative connection was an expansion on Cormac's Glossary. And the etymology in that Glossary has been demonstrated as inaccurate many different times. MacCollouch pointed this out back in 1911:
 In Cormac's Glossary and other texts, "Beltane" is derived from bel-tene, "a goodly fire," or from bel-dine, because newly-born (dine) cattle were offered to Bel, an idol-god.  The latter is followed by those who believe in a Celtic Belus, connected with Baal. No such god is known, however, and the god Belenos is in no way connected with the Semitic divinity. M. D'Arbois assumes an unknown god of death, Beltene (from beltu, "to die"), whose festival Beltane was. But Beltane was a festival of life, of the sun shining in his strength. Dr. Stokes gives a more acceptable explanation of the word. Its primitive form was belo-te[p]niâ, from belo-s, "clear," "shining," the root of the names Belenos and Belisama, and te[p]nos, "fire." Thus the word would mean something like "bright fire," perhaps the sun or the bonfire, or both. (MacCulloch 1911:265)
Hislop's intention was to discredit the Christian observance of Easter by showing pagan sources for the holiday. Hislops presentation is an Argumentum Verbosium (Proof by Intimidation or Proof by Verbosity)
"The argument is so complex, so long-winded and so poorly presented that you are obliged to accept it, simply to avoid being forced to sift through its minute details"

"Maying" Traditions

These traditions are those associated with Beltane by many Neo-Pagan and Wiccan sources. In these traditions, they see what they believe to be ancient pagan rituals that survived oppression and suppression from the Christian church.

Ronald Hutton (The Stations of the Sun, chs. 22-25) has demonstrated the relatively late appearance of traditions like garlanding, the Maypole, May Dances, and the King and Queen of May. A particularly good example of how some of these things become so prominent in modern Neo-Paganism and Wicca is shown by the evolution of the pagan god called The Green Man.

The Green Man

The Green Man is a particularly poignant example of creative fiction in Neo-Paganism and Wicca. Guily's entry in her Encyclopedia says about the Green Man:
   In the British Isles and Europe, a pagan deity of the woodlands usually represented as a horned man peering out from a mask of foliage, usually the sacred oak. The Green Man, also called "Green Jack," "Jack-in-the-Green" and "Green George," represents the spirits of the trees, plants and foliate. He is attributed with the powers of making rain and fostering the livestock with lush meadows. He appears often in medieval art, including carved church decorations.
    In spring Pagan rites, Green George, as he is usually called then, is represented by a young man clad from head to foot in greenery, who leads the festival procession. In some festivals, Green George, or an effigy of him, is dunked into a river or pond in order to ensure enough rain to make the fields and meadows green. (p. 143)
Garlanding and the use of greenery is itself already a late addition to the May Day festivities. The Jack-in-the-Green was a wicker frame woven with greenery worn by a man in a May Day procession, typically used by chimney-sweeps. The appearance and spread of this costume in the 19th and 20th century England is thoroughly documented. But the name "the Green Man" was actually coined in 1939 by Lady Raglan, a member of the Folklore Society. She took the name "from a popular pub sign displaying a forester, and suggested that both the May Day character and the carved heads were representations of pre-Christian deities or spirits of nature and fertility." (Hutton 241-242)

[Hutton notes that the actual article where this creative fiction and naming took place is Lady Raglan, "The Green Man in Church Architecture", Folk-Lore, 50 (1939), 45-57. jstor ]

This would actually make it impossible for the Green Man to appear "often in medieval art, including carved church decorations," though that is the thrust of Lady Raglan's article. Chalk this one up to a Folklorist's wishful imagination. More "fakelore." The Green Man is neither ancient, nor particularly Celtic, nor even a pagan deity.

The Shift Away From St. Walburga to Paganism

Witchery

From 1470 and on to about 1750 (in England) Witch Hunting became a profitable venture. Witchhunters just as rigorously creative in their attribution of supernatural abilities to witches as they were rigorously arbitrary in the nature of proof that they used to demonstrate guilt.

The invention of the printing press enabled printing of imaginative books like Malleus Maleficarum (1487 [English version])

This first book against witchcraft is pre-Reformation. It did not have immediate consequences but became the springboard from which the Radical Reformation launched its bloodthirsty witch hunts and massive outflow of witchcraft literature. Itinerant witch hunters (usually Anabaptists) roamed throughout England, Germany, and France looking to root out and kill witches.

From that period, wherever there was a fire, a pole, a broom, there was a witch.

The earliest fuller descriptions of Beltane to contain any reference to witches comes from John Ramsay, a friend of Sir Walter Scott in the 1770s. From the late-1700s to the beginning of the 20th century several second-hand accounts of witches and the symbolic burning of witches became associated with Walpurgisnacht/May Eve'. (Hutton p. 220-224)

This also happens to coincide with when popular culture would come to associate the night with witches due to the first real mention of Walpurgis Night in popular literature through Goethe's Faust (1808). I think it is likely that Goethe's story became accepted as history, much like The Drinking Gourd became accepted as history in the United States. After Goethe, Stoker, Lovecraft, and numerous others would weave witches and Walpurgis Night together.

Folklorist and Fakelore

The creative and imaginative period of folklore studies began in the same period, the late 1700s. This imagination driven and non-data based focus found its most clear expression in Sir James Frazer's 1922 work The Golden Bough. Frazer's work dominated the field until the late 1970s when anthropologists and folklorists began to look for actual data.

The data did not support Frazer or the old folklorists.

This also coincides with the recent rebirth of Wiccanism and Neo-Paganism as self-creating religious philosophies that now tend to distance themselves from the pre-1970s Pagan and Wiccan writings as well as from the earlier folklore studies.

Summary
Walpugis Night has been hijacked and re-made into something that it never was. This is not because it was a particularly significant holiday. It is because it fit the imaginative pattern of those who were hoping for pagan origins for the day; for those who wanted to have Christianity steal something.


But the significance of the date is particularly great in the need for the Neo-Pagans and Wiccans (along with the older folklorists) to make a claim that Beltane is older than Christianity and corresponds to the Celtic pagan year. For many this would demonstrate that Christianity is illegitimate and unoriginal.

Nothing of the kind can be demonstrated by any of the evidence.

Resources:

See also the Resource Page

Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). The Golden Bough. 1922. Online

Ronald Hutton in his The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain, Oxford University Press, 1996

The Religion of the Ancient Celts By J. A. MacCulloch [1911]
html presentation Internet Archive Project Guttenberg
"Calendar (Celtic)" in Hastings' Encyclopædia of Rel. and Ethics, iii. 78 f.
--All 13 Volumes at Internet Archive
--Volume 3 at Internet Archive

Rosemary Ellen Guiley's The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft, 2nd Edition, Checkmark Books, New York, 1999.


Stokes, Whitley, and John Strachan (eds.), Thesaurus palaeohibernicus: a collection of Old-Irish glosses, scholia, prose, and verse, 3 vols, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1901—1910. <online>

Friday, April 26, 2013

Inclusive Language Excludes God

How does gender neutral or inclusive language affect translation, liturgy, hymns?
And how does it affect perception of God?

 Dr. Paul Grime's presentation, “Liturgical Re-Adjustments: Off Ramp to Apostasy?” at the Concordia Seminary, Fort Wayne Symposia 2013.


 Video here http://media.ctsfw.edu/4047



 Hattip to Brian Yamabe At Steadfast Lutherans

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

mis/translation of "Rights" in English Bibles, survey of modern versions

<!--This file was converted to xhtml by OpenOffice.org - see http://xml.openoffice.org/odf2xhtml for more info.- no title specified
ASV 1901, KJV, KJV21, Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition, Young's Literal Translation
No Results

Darby
2 Results
  1. 1.Exodus 21:10        If he take himself another, her food, her clothing, and her conjugal rights he shall not diminish. 
  2. 2.1 Thessalonians 4:6        not overstepping the rights of and wronging his brother in the matter, because the Lord [is] the avenger of all these things, even as we also told you before, and have fully testified. 

JB Phillips NT 1962
3 Results: 2 Translated, 1 Interpretive Heading
  1. 1.1 Corinthians 9:7-9        [ Even a preacher of the Gospel has some rights! ] Just think for a moment. Does any soldier ever go to war at his own expense? Does any man plant a vineyard and have no share in its fruits? Does the shepherd who tends the flock never taste the milk? This is, I know, an argument from everyday life, but it is a principle endorsed by the Law. For is it not written in the Law of Moses: ‘You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain’. 
  2. 2.1 Corinthians 7:3-5        The husband should give his wife what is due to her as his wife, and the wife should be as fair to her husband. The wife has no longer full rights over her own person, but shares them with her husband. In the same way the husband shares his personal rights with his wife. Do not cheat each other of normal sexual intercourse, unless of course you both decide to abstain temporarily to make special opportunity for fasting and prayer. But afterwards you should resume relations as before, or you will expose yourselves to the obvious temptation of the devil. 

NKJV 1982
2 Results: 1 Translated, 1 Interpretive Heading
  1. 1.Exodus 21:10        If he takes another wife, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marriage rights. 
  2. 2.Deuteronomy 21:15        [ Firstborn Inheritance Rights ] “If a man has two wives, one loved and the other unloved, and they have borne him children, both the loved and the unloved, and if the firstborn son is of her who is unloved, 


NIV 1984
19 results: 18 Translated, 1 Interpretive Heading
  1. 1.Exodus 21:9        If he selects her for his son, he must grant her the rights of a daughter. 
  2. 2.Exodus 21:10        If he marries another woman, he must not deprive the first one of her food, clothing and marital rights. 
  3. 3.Deuteronomy 21:16        when he wills his property to his sons, he must not give the rights of the firstborn to the son of the wife he loves in preference to his actual firstborn, the son of the wife he does not love. 
  4. 4.1 Chronicles 5:1        [ Reuben ] The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel (he was the firstborn, but when he defiled his father’s marriage bed, his rights as firstborn were given to the sons of Joseph son of Israel; so he could not be listed in the genealogical record in accordance with his birthright, 
  5. 5.1 Chronicles 5:2        and though Judah was the strongest of his brothers and a ruler came from him, the rights of the firstborn belonged to Joseph)— 
  6. 6.Job 36:6        He does not keep the wicked alive but gives the afflicted their rights. 
  7. 7.Psalm 82:3        Defend the cause of the weak and fatherless; maintain the rights of the poor and oppressed. 
  8. 8.Proverbs 31:5        lest they drink and forget what the law decrees, and deprive all the oppressed of their rights. 
  9. 9.Proverbs 31:8        “Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. 
  10. 10.Proverbs 31:9        Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights of the poor and needy.” 
  11. 11.Ecclesiastes 5:8        [ Riches Are Meaningless ] If you see the poor oppressed in a district, and justice and rights denied, do not be surprised at such things; for one official is eyed by a higher one, and over them both are others higher still. 
  12. 12.Isaiah 10:2        to deprive the poor of their rights and withhold justice from the oppressed of my people, making widows their prey and robbing the fatherless. 
  13. 13.Jeremiah 5:28        and have grown fat and sleek. Their evil deeds have no limit; they do not plead the case of the fatherless to win it, they do not defend the rights of the poor. 
  14. 14.Lamentations 3:35        to deny a man his rights before the Most High, 
  15. 15.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ The Rights of an Apostle ] Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not the result of my work in the Lord? 
  16. 16.1 Corinthians 9:15        But I have not used any of these rights. And I am not writing this in the hope that you will do such things for me. I would rather die than have anyone deprive me of this boast. 
  17. 17.1 Corinthians 9:18        What then is my reward? Just this: that in preaching the gospel I may offer it free of charge, and so not make use of my rights in preaching it. 
  18. 18.Galatians 4:5        to redeem those under law, that we might receive the full rights of sons. 
  19. 19.Hebrews 12:16        See that no one is sexually immoral, or is godless like Esau, who for a single meal sold his inheritance rights as the oldest son. 

TNIV 2005
20 Results: 19 Translated, 1 Interpretive Heading
  1. 1.Exodus 21:9        If he selects her for his son, he must grant her the rights of a daughter. 
  2. 2.Exodus 21:10        If he marries another woman, he must not deprive the first one of her food, clothing and marital rights. 
  3. 3.Deuteronomy 21:16        when he wills his property to his sons, he must not give the rights of the firstborn to the son of the wife he loves in preference to his actual firstborn, the son of the wife he does not love. 
  4. 4.1 Samuel 8:9        Now listen to them; but warn them solemnly and let them know what the king who will reign over them will claim as his rights.” 
  5. 5.1 Samuel 8:11        He said, “This is what the king who will reign over you will claim as his rights: He will take your sons and make them serve with his chariots and horses, and they will run in front of his chariots. 
  6. 6.1 Samuel 10:25        Samuel explained to the people the rights and duties of kingship. He wrote them down on a scroll and deposited it before the LORD. Then Samuel dismissed the people to go to their own homes. 
  7. 7.1 Chronicles 5:1        [ Reuben ] The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel (he was the firstborn, but when he defiled his father’s marriage bed, his rights as firstborn were given to the sons of Joseph son of Israel; so he could not be listed in the genealogical record in accordance with his birthright, 
  8. 8.1 Chronicles 5:2        and though Judah was the strongest of his brothers and a ruler came from him, the rights of the firstborn belonged to Joseph)— 
  9. 9.Job 36:6        He does not keep the wicked alive but gives the afflicted their rights. 
  10. 10.Proverbs 31:5        lest they drink and forget what has been decreed, and deprive all the oppressed of their rights. 
  11. 11.Proverbs 31:8        Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. 
  12. 12.Proverbs 31:9        Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights of the poor and needy. 
  13. 13.Ecclesiastes 5:8        [ Riches Are Meaningless ] If you see the poor oppressed in a district, and justice and rights denied, do not be surprised at such things; for one official is eyed by a higher one, and over them both are others higher still. 
  14. 14.Isaiah 10:2        to deprive the poor of their rights and withhold justice from the oppressed of my people, making widows their prey and robbing the fatherless. 
  15. 15.Lamentations 3:35        to deny people their rights before the Most High, 
  16. 16.1 Corinthians 8:9        Be careful, however, that the exercise of your rights does not become a stumbling block to the weak. 
  17. 17.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ Paul’s Rights as an Apostle ] Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not the result of my work in the Lord? 
  18. 18.1 Corinthians 9:15        But I have not used any of these rights. And I am not writing this in the hope that you will do such things for me, for I would rather die than allow anyone to deprive me of this boast. 
  19. 19.1 Corinthians 9:18        What then is my reward? Just this: that in preaching the gospel I may offer it free of charge, and so not misuse my rights as a preacher of the gospel. 
  20. 20.Hebrews 12:16        See that no one is sexually immoral, or is godless like Esau, who for a single meal sold his inheritance rights as the oldest son. 

NIV 2011
20 Results
  1. 1.Exodus 21:9        If he selects her for his son, he must grant her the rights of a daughter. 
  2. 2.Exodus 21:10        If he marries another woman, he must not deprive the first one of her food, clothing and marital rights. 
  3. 3.Deuteronomy 21:16        when he wills his property to his sons, he must not give the rights of the firstborn to the son of the wife he loves in preference to his actual firstborn, the son of the wife he does not love. 
  4. 4.1 Samuel 8:9        Now listen to them; but warn them solemnly and let them know what the king who will reign over them will claim as his rights.” 
  5. 5.1 Samuel 8:11        He said, “This is what the king who will reign over you will claim as his rights: He will take your sons and make them serve with his chariots and horses, and they will run in front of his chariots. 
  6. 6.1 Samuel 10:25        Samuel explained to the people the rights and duties of kingship. He wrote them down on a scroll and deposited it before the LORD. Then Samuel dismissed the people to go to their own homes. 
  7. 7.1 Chronicles 5:1        [ Reuben ] The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel (he was the firstborn, but when he defiled his father’s marriage bed, his rights as firstborn were given to the sons of Joseph son of Israel; so he could not be listed in the genealogical record in accordance with his birthright, 
  8. 8.1 Chronicles 5:2        and though Judah was the strongest of his brothers and a ruler came from him, the rights of the firstborn belonged to Joseph)— 
  9. 9.Job 36:6        He does not keep the wicked alive but gives the afflicted their rights. 
  10. 10.Proverbs 31:5        lest they drink and forget what has been decreed, and deprive all the oppressed of their rights. 
  11. 11.Proverbs 31:8        Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. 
  12. 12.Proverbs 31:9        Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights of the poor and needy. 
  13. 13.Ecclesiastes 5:8        [ Riches Are Meaningless ] If you see the poor oppressed in a district, and justice and rights denied, do not be surprised at such things; for one official is eyed by a higher one, and over them both are others higher still. 
  14. 14.Isaiah 10:2        to deprive the poor of their rights and withhold justice from the oppressed of my people, making widows their prey and robbing the fatherless. 
  15. 15.Lamentations 3:35        to deny people their rights before the Most High,ns  
  16. 16.1 Corinthians 8:9        Be careful, however, that the exercise of your rights does not become a stumbling block to the weak. 
  17. 17.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ Paul’s Rights as an Apostle ] Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not the result of my work in the Lord? 
  18. 18.1 Corinthians 9:15        But I have not used any of these rights. And I am not writing this in the hope that you will do such things for me, for I would rather die than allow anyone to deprive me of this boast. 
  19. 19.1 Corinthians 9:18        What then is my reward? Just this: that in preaching the gospel I may offer it free of charge, and so not make full use of my rights as a preacher of the gospel. 
  20. 20.Hebrews 12:16        See that no one is sexually immoral, or is godless like Esau, who for a single meal sold his inheritance rights as the oldest son. 

GWN 1995
33 Results
  1. 1.Genesis 25:31        Jacob responded, “First, sell me your rights as firstborn.”  
  2. 2.Genesis 25:33        “First, swear an oath,” Jacob said. So Esau swore an oath to him and sold him his rights as firstborn.  
  3. 3.Genesis 25:34        Then Jacob gave Esau a meal of bread and lentils. He ate and drank, and then he got up and left. This is how Esau showed his contempt for his rights as firstborn.  
  4. 4.Genesis 27:36        Esau said, “Isn’t that why he’s named Jacob? He’s cheated me twice already: He took my rights as firstborn, and now he’s taken my blessing.” So he asked, “Haven’t you saved a blessing for me?”  
  5. 5.Numbers 36:1        [ The Rights of Women to Inherit Land ] The heads of the households whose families were descended from Gilead, son of Machir and grandson of Manasseh, (families of Joseph’s descendants) came and spoke to Moses and the leaders of the other Israelite households.  
  6. 6.Deuteronomy 21:17        Instead, he must recognize the son of the wife he doesn’t love as the firstborn. He must give that son a double portion of whatever he owns. That son is the very first son he had. The rights of the firstborn son are his.  
  7. 7.Ruth 4:6        The man replied, “In that case I cannot assume responsibility for her. If I did, I would ruin my inheritance. Take all my rights to buy back the property for yourself, because I cannot assume that responsibility.”  
  8. 8.1 Samuel 8:9        Listen to them now, but be sure to warn them and tell them about the rights of a king.”  
  9. 9.1 Samuel 8:11        Samuel said, “These are the rights of a king: He will draft your sons, make them serve on his chariots and horses, and make them run ahead of his chariots.  
  10. 10.1 Chronicles 5:1        [ Reuben’s Descendants ] These are the sons of Reuben, Israel’s firstborn. (Although he was the firstborn, his rights as firstborn were given to his nephews, Joseph’s sons, because he dishonored his father’s bed. However, Joseph couldn’t be listed in the genealogy as the firstborn son.  
  11. 11.1 Chronicles 5:2        Even though Judah was more prominent than his brothers and the prince was to come from him, Joseph received the rights as firstborn.)  
  12. 12.Job 27:2        “I swear an oath by God, the one who has taken away my rights, by the Almighty, who has made my life bitter: 
  13. 13.Job 31:13        “If I have abused the rights of my servants, male or female, when they have disagreed with me, 
  14. 14.Job 34:5        because Job has said, ‘I’m righteous, but God has taken away my rights. 
  15. 15.Job 34:6        I’m considered a liar in spite of my rights. I’ve been wounded by a deadly arrow, though I haven’t been disobedient.’ 
  16. 16.Psalm 82:3        Defend weak people and orphans. Protect the rights of the oppressed and the poor. 
  17. 17.Psalm 140:12        I know that the Lord will defend the rights of those who are oppressed and the cause of those who are needy. 
  18. 18.Proverbs 22:22        [ Living With Your Neighbor ] Do not rob the poor because they are poor or trample on the rights of an oppressed person at the city gate, 
  19. 19.Proverbs 31:8        “Speak out for the one who cannot speak, for the rights of those who are doomed. 
  20. 20.Proverbs 31:9        Speak out, judge fairly, and defend the rights of oppressed and needy people.” 
  21. 21.Ecclesiastes 5:8        [ Corrupt Officials Have Corrupt Officials Over Them ] Don’t be surprised if you see poor people being oppressed, denied justice, or denied their rights in any district. One authority is watching over another, and they both have authorities watching over them. 
  22. 22.Isaiah 5:23        who declare the guilty innocent for a bribe, who take away the rights of righteous people. 
  23. 23.Isaiah 10:2        They deprive the poor of justice. They take away the rights of the needy among my people. They prey on widows and rob orphans. 
  24. 24.Isaiah 40:27        Jacob, why do you complain? Israel, why do you say, “My way is hidden from the Lord, and my rights are ignored by my God”? 
  25. 25.Jeremiah 5:28        They grow big and fat. Their evil deeds have no limits. They have no respect for the rights of others. They have no respect for the rights of orphans. But they still prosper. They don’t defend the rights of the poor. 
  1. 26.Jeremiah 32:8        “Then, as the Lord had said, my cousin Hanamel came to me in the courtyard of the prison. He said to me, ‘Please buy my field that is in Anathoth in the territory of Benjamin. It is your responsibility to purchase it, because the rights of the closest relative belong to you. Buy it for yourself.’ Then I knew that the Lord had spoken to me. 
  2. 27.Lamentations 3:35        deny people their rights in the presence of the Most High God, 
  3. 28.Malachi 3:5        “I will come to judge you. I will be quick to testify against sorcerers, adulterers, lying witnesses, and those who cheat workers out of their wages and oppress widows and orphans. I will also testify against those who deprive foreigners of their rights. None of them fear me,” says the Lord of Armies. 
  4. 29.1 Corinthians 9:6        Or is it only Barnabas and I who don’t have any rights, except to find work to support ourselves? 
  5. 30.1 Corinthians 9:12        If others have the right to expect this from you, don’t we deserve even more? But we haven’t used our rights. Instead, we would put up with anything in order not to hinder the Good News of Christ in any way. 
  6. 31.1 Corinthians 9:15        I haven’t used any of these rights, and I haven’t written this in order to use them now. I would rather die than have anyone turn my bragging into meaningless words. 
  7. 32.1 Corinthians 9:18        So what is my reward? It is to spread the Good News free of charge. In that way I won’t use the rights that belong to those who spread the Good News. 
  8. 33.Hebrews 12:16        Make sure that no one commits sexual sin or is as concerned about earthly things as Esau was. He sold his rights as the firstborn son for a single meal. 

CEB 2011 Common English Bible
18 Results +4Apocrypha
  1. 1.Genesis 25:27        [ Jacob acquires the oldest son’s rights ] When the young men grew up, Esau became an outdoorsman who knew how to hunt, and Jacob became a quiet man who stayed at home. 
  2. 2.Exodus 21:9        If he assigns her to his son, he must give her the rights of a daughter. 
  3. 3.Exodus 21:10        If he takes another woman for himself, he may not reduce her food, clothing, or marital rights. 
  4. 4.Deuteronomy 21:17        Instead, he must acknowledge the unloved wife’s son as the oldest male, giving to him two-thirds of everything that he owns, because that son is the earliest produce of his physical power. The oldest male’s rights belong to that son. 
  5. 5.Deuteronomy 24:17        [ Rights of widows, orphans, and immigrants ] Don’t obstruct the legal rights of an immigrant or orphan. Don’t take a widow’s coat as pledge for a loan. 
  6. 6.Deuteronomy 27:19        “Cursed is anyone who obstructs the legal rights of immigrants, orphans, or widows.” All the people will reply: “We agree!” 
  7. 7.Proverbs 29:7        The righteous know the rights of the poor, but the wicked don’t understand. 
  8. 8.Proverbs 31:5        Otherwise, they will drink and forget the law, and violate the rights of the needy. 
  9. 9.Proverbs 31:8        Speak out on behalf of the voiceless, and for the rights of all who are vulnerable. 
  10. 10.Isaiah 5:23        who spare the guilty for bribes, and rob the innocent of their rights. 
  11. 11.Isaiah 10:2        to deprive the needy of their rights and to rob the poor among my people of justice; to make widows their loot; to steal from orphans! 
  12. 12.Jeremiah 5:28        and have grown fat and sleek! To be sure, their evil deeds exceed all limits, and yet they prosper. They are indifferent to the plight of the orphan, reluctant to defend the rights of the poor. 
  13. 13.Jeremiah 22:16        He defended the rights of the poor and needy; then it went well. Isn’t that what it means to know me? declares the LORD. 
  14. 14.Ezekiel 22:7        In you they treat father and mother with contempt. In you they oppress immigrants and deny the rights of orphans and widows. 
  15. 15.Hosea 5:11        Ephraim is under pressure from its enemies; Ephraim’s rights aren’t protected. This is because Ephraim chose to pursue worthless things. 
  16. 16.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ Waiving rights for the gospel ] Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven’t I seen Jesus our Lord? Aren’t you my work in the Lord? 
  17. 17.1 Corinthians 9:12        If others have these rights over you, don’t we deserve them all the more? However, we haven’t made use of this right, but we put up with everything so we don’t put any obstacle in the way of the gospel of Christ. 
  18. 18.1 Corinthians 9:18        What reward do I get? That when I preach, I offer the good news free of charge. That’s why I don’t use the rights to which I’m entitled through the gospel. 
  19. 19.1 Maccabees 8:32        If they appeal now again for help against you, we will defend their rights and fight you on both sea and land.” 
  20. 20.2 Maccabees 11:14        and persuaded them to come to a just settlement in all issues concerning civil rights. He also persuaded them that he would convince the king to become their friend. 
  21. 21.2 Maccabees 11:35        Lysias the king’s relative has handed rights over to you, and we agree.  
  22. 22.2 Maccabees 13:23        Meanwhile, he received news that Philip (left in charge of the government in Antioch) had rebelled. He was entirely caught off guard, and so offered reconciliation to the Jews, accepted their terms, swore to respect all their rights, and reached a settlement. He also offered a sacrifice, honored the temple, and was generous toward the place. 

Complete Jewish Bible 1998
17 Results
  1. 1.Genesis 25:31        Ya‘akov answered, “First sell me your rights as the firstborn.” 
  2. 2.Genesis 25:32        “Look, I’m about to die!” said ‘Esav. “What use to me are my rights as the firstborn?” 
  3. 3.Genesis 30:21        After this, she gave birth to a daughter and named her Dinah [controversy over rights]. 
  4. 4.Exodus 21:10        If he marries another wife, he is not to reduce her food, clothing or marital rights. 
  5. 5.Deuteronomy 23:1        “A man is not to take his father’s wife, thus violating his father’s rights. 
  6. 6.Deuteronomy 27:20        “‘A curse on anyone who has sexual relations with his father’s wife, because he has violated his father’s rights.’ All the people are to say, ‘Amen!’ 
  7. 7.Isaiah 10:2        to deprive the impoverished of justice and rob my people’s poor of their rights, looting widows and preying on orphans! 
  8. 8.Isaiah 40:27        Why do you complain, Ya‘akov; why do you say, Isra’el, “My way is hidden from ADONAI, my rights are ignored by my God”? 
  9. 9.Jeremiah 3:19        “‘“I thought that I would like to put you among the sons [with inheritance rights] and give you a pleasant land, the best heritage of all the nations. I thought that you would call me ‘My father’ and never stop following me. 
  10. 10.Malachi 3:5        “Then I will approach you for judgment; and I will be quick to witness against sorcerers, adulterers and perjurers; against those who take advantage of wage-earners, widows and orphans; against those who rob the foreigner of his rights and don’t fear me,” says ADONAI-Tzva’ot. 
  11. 11.Psalm 82:3        Give justice to the weak and fatherless! Uphold the rights of the wretched and poor! 
  12. 12.Psalm 140:13        I know that ADONAI gives justice to the poor and maintains the rights of the needy. 
  13. 13.Proverbs 31:8        Speak up for those who can’t speak for themselves, for the rights of all who need an advocate. 
  14. 14.Ecclesiastes 5:7        If you see the poor oppressed, rights violated and justice perverted in the province, don’t be surprised; for a high official has one higher watching him, and there are others above them. 
  15. 15.1 Corinthians 9:15        But I have not made use of any of these rights. Nor am I writing now to secure them for myself, for I would rather die than be deprived of my ground for boasting! 
  16. 16.1 Corinthians 9:18        So then, what is my reward? Just this: that in proclaiming the Good News I can make it available free of charge, without making use of the rights to which it entitles me. 
  17. 17.Hebrews 12:16        and that no one is sexually immoral, or godless like Esav, who in exchange for a single meal gave up his rights as the firstborn. 
Contemporary English Version 1995
12 Results
  1. 1.Genesis 25:27        [ Esau Sells His Rights as the First-Born Son ] As Jacob and Esau grew older, Esau liked the outdoors and became a good hunter, while Jacob settled down and became a shepherd. 
  2. 2.Genesis 25:31        Jacob replied, “Sell me your rights as the first-born son.” 
  3. 3.Genesis 25:32        “I’m about to die,” Esau answered. “What good will those rights do me?” 
  4. 4.Genesis 25:34        Jacob then gave Esau some bread and some of the bean stew, and when Esau had finished eating and drinking, he just got up and left, showing how little he thought of his rights as the first-born. 
  5. 5.Genesis 27:36        Esau replied, “My brother deserves the name Jacob, because he has already cheated me twice. The first time he cheated me out of my rights as the first-born son, and now he has cheated me out of my blessing.” Then Esau asked his father, “Don’t you still have any blessing left for me?” 
  6. 6.Deuteronomy 10:18        The LORD defends the rights of orphans and widows. He cares for foreigners and gives them food and clothing. 
  7. 7.Deuteronomy 21:15-17        [ Rights of a First-Born Son ] Moses said to Israel: Suppose a man has two wives and loves one more than the other. The first son of either wife is the man’s first-born son, even if the boy’s mother is the wife the man doesn’t love. Later, when the man is near death and is dividing up his property, he must give a double share to his first-born son, simply because he was the first to be born. 
  8. 8.1 Samuel 10:25        Samuel explained the rights and duties of a king and wrote them all in a book. He put the book in a temple building at one of the places where the LORD was worshiped. Then Samuel sent everyone home. 
  9. 9.1 Chronicles 5:1        [ The Descendants of Reuben ] Reuben was the oldest son of Jacob, but he lost his rights as the first-born son because he slept with one of his father’s wives. The honor of the first-born son was then given to Joseph, 
  10. 10.Psalm 146:9        and looks after strangers. He defends the rights of orphans and widows, but destroys the wicked. 
  11. 11.Proverbs 29:7        The wicked don’t care about the rights of the poor, but good people do. 
  12. 12.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ The Rights of an Apostle ] I am free. I am an apostle. I have seen the Lord Jesus and have led you to have faith in him. 


Good News Version with Apocrypha 1992
36 Results +2 Apocrypha
  1. 1.Genesis 25:27        [ Esau Sells His Rights as the First-Born Son ] The boys grew up, and Esau became a skilled hunter, a man who loved the outdoors, but Jacob was a quiet man who stayed at home. 
  2. 2.Genesis 25:31        Jacob answered, I will give it to you if you give me your rights as the first-born son. 
  3. 3.Genesis 25:32        Esau said, All right! I am about to die; what good will my rights do me? 
  4. 4.Genesis 25:33        Jacob answered, First make a vow that you will give me your rights. Esau made the vow and gave his rights to Jacob. 
  5. 5.Genesis 25:34        Then Jacob gave him some bread and some of the soup. He ate and drank and then got up and left. That was all Esau cared about his rights as the first-born son. 
  6. 6.Genesis 27:36        Esau said, This is the second time that he has cheated me. No wonder his name is Jacob. He took my rights as the first-born son, and now he has taken away my blessing. Haven't you saved a blessing for me? 
  7. 7.Exodus 21:10        If a man takes a second wife, he must continue to give his first wife the same amount of food and clothing and the same rights that she had before. 
  8. 8.Deuteronomy 17:8        It may be that some cases will be too difficult for the local judges to decide, such as certain cases of property rights or of bodily injury or those cases that involve a distinction between murder and manslaughter. When this happens, go to the one place of worship chosen by the Lord your God, 
  9. 9.Deuteronomy 24:17        Do not deprive foreigners and orphans of their rights; and do not take a widow's garment as security for a loan. 
  10. 10.Deuteronomy 27:19        God's curse on anyone who deprives foreigners, orphans, and widows of their rights. And all the people will answer, Amen! 
  11. 11.1 Samuel 10:25        Samuel explained to the people the rights and duties of a king, and then wrote them in a book, which he deposited in a holy place. Then he sent everyone home. 
  12. 12.1 Chronicles 5:1        [ The Descendants of Reuben ] These are the descendants of Reuben, the oldest of Jacob's sons. (Because he had sex with one of his father's concubines, he lost the rights belonging to the first-born son, and those rights were given to Joseph. 
  13. 13.2 Chronicles 28:19        Because King Ahaz of Judah had violated the rights of his people and had defied the Lord, the Lord brought troubles on Judah. 
  14. 14.1 Maccabees 11:34        I confirm their rights to the land of Judea and the three regions of Ephraim, Lydda, and Arimathea, which are hereby annexed to Judea from Samaria with all the lands belonging to them. This will be of benefit to everyone who goes to Jerusalem to offer sacrifice, since payments of the annual tax on produce and fruit from these lands will no longer be made to the king, but to the Temple. 
  15. 15.Job 24:4        They prevent the poor from getting their rights and force the needy to run and hide. 
  16. 16.Psalm 82:3        Defend the rights of the poor and the orphans; be fair to the needy and the helpless. 
  17. 17.Psalm 103:6        The Lord judges in favor of the oppressed and gives them their rights. 
  18. 18.Psalm 140:12        Lord, I know that you defend the cause of the poor and the rights of the needy. 
  19. 19.Proverbs 29:7        A good person knows the rights of the poor, but wicked people cannot understand such things. 
  20. 20.Proverbs 29:14        If a king defends the rights of the poor, he will rule for a long time. 
  21. 21.Proverbs 31:5        When they drink, they forget the laws and ignore the rights of people in need. 
  22. 22.Proverbs 31:8        Speak up for people who cannot speak for themselves. Protect the rights of all who are helpless. 
  23. 23.Proverbs 31:9        Speak for them and be a righteous judge. Protect the rights of the poor and needy. 
  24. 24.Ecclesiastes 5:8        [ Life Is Useless ] Don't be surprised when you see that the government oppresses the poor and denies them justice and their rights. Every official is protected by someone higher, and both are protected by still higher officials. 
  25. 25.Sirach 4:22        Do not let others have their way at your expense; do not bring on your own ruin by giving up your rights. 
  1. 26.Isaiah 1:17        and learn to do right. See that justice is done—help those who are oppressed, give orphans their rights, and defend widows. 
  2. 27.Isaiah 10:2        That is how you keep the poor from having their rights and from getting justice. That is how you take the property that belongs to widows and orphans. 
  3. 28.Isaiah 11:4        he will judge the poor fairly and defend the rights of the helpless. At his command the people will be punished, and evil persons will die. 
  4. 29.Isaiah 32:7        A stupid person is evil and does evil things; he plots to ruin the poor with lies and to keep them from getting their rights. 
  5. 30.Jeremiah 5:28        why they are fat and well fed. There is no limit to their evil deeds. They do not give orphans their rights or show justice to the oppressed. 
  6. 31.Lamentations 3:35        He knows when we are denied the rights he gave us; 
  7. 32.Amos 5:7        You are doomed, you that twist justice and cheat people out of their rights! 
  8. 33.Luke 18:3        And there was a widow in that same town who kept coming to him and pleading for her rights, saying, Help me against my opponent! 
  9. 34.Luke 18:5        yet because of all the trouble this widow is giving me, I will see to it that she gets her rights. If I don't, she will keep on coming and finally wear me out! 
  10. 35.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ Rights and Duties of an Apostle ] Am I not a free man? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen Jesus our Lord? And aren't you the result of my work for the Lord? 
  11. 36.1 Corinthians 9:15        But I haven't made use of any of these rights, nor am I writing this now in order to claim such rights for myself. I would rather die first! Nobody is going to turn my rightful boast into empty words! 
  12. 37.1 Corinthians 9:18        What pay do I get, then? It is the privilege of preaching the Good News without charging for it, without claiming my rights in my work for the gospel. 
  13. 38.Hebrews 12:16        Let no one become immoral or unspiritual like Esau, who for a single meal sold his rights as the older son. 


NASB 1995
10 Results
9 Translated 1 as a an interpretive heading
  1. 1.Exodus 21:10        If he takes to himself another woman, he may not reduce her food, her clothing, or her conjugal rights. 
  2. 2.Exodus 22:1        [ Property Rights ] “ If a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for the ox and four sheep for the sheep. 
  3. 3.Leviticus 25:31        The houses of the villages, however, which have no surrounding wall shall be considered as open fields; they have redemption rights and revert in the jubilee. 
  4. 4.Proverbs 29:7        The righteous is concerned for the rights of the poor, The wicked does not understand such concern. 
  5. 5.Proverbs 31:5        For they will drink and forget what is decreed, And pervert the rights of all the afflicted. 
  6. 6.Proverbs 31:8        Open your mouth for the mute, For the rights of all the unfortunate. 
  7. 7.Proverbs 31:9        Open your mouth, judge righteously, And defend the rights of the afflicted and needy. 
  8. 8.Isaiah 5:23        Who justify the wicked for a bribe, And take away the rights of the ones who are in the right! 
  9. 9.Isaiah 10:2        So as to deprive the needy of justice And rob the poor of My people of their rights, So that widows may be their spoil And that they may plunder the orphans. 
  10. 10.Jeremiah 5:28        ‘They are fat, they are sleek, They also excel in deeds of wickedness; They do not plead the cause, The cause of the orphan, that they may prosper; And they do not defend the rights of the poor. 

11 Results
  1. 1.Exodus 21:10        If he takes another wife to himself, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, or her marital rights. 
  2. 2.Deuteronomy 21:15        [ Inheritance Rights of the Firstborn ] “If a man has two wives, the one loved and the other unloved, and both the loved and the unloved have borne him children, and if the firstborn son belongs to the unloved, 
  3. 3.1 Samuel 10:25        Then Samuel told the people the rights and duties of the kingship, and he wrote them in a book and laid it up before the LORD. Then Samuel sent all the people away, each one to his home. 
  4. 4.Proverbs 29:7        A righteous man knows the rights of the poor; a wicked man does not understand such knowledge. 
  5. 5.Proverbs 31:5        lest they drink and forget what has been decreed and pervert the rights of all the afflicted. 
  6. 6.Proverbs 31:8        Open your mouth for the mute, for the rights of all who are destitute. 
  7. 7.Proverbs 31:9        Open your mouth, judge righteously, defend the rights of the poor and needy. 
  8. 8.Jeremiah 5:28        they have grown fat and sleek. They know no bounds in deeds of evil; they judge not with justice the cause of the fatherless, to make it prosper, and they do not defend the rights of the needy. 
  9. 9.1 Corinthians 7:3        The husband should give to his wife her conjugal rights, and likewise the wife to her husband. 
  10. 10.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ Paul Surrenders His Rights ] Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are not you my workmanship in the Lord? 
  11. 11.1 Corinthians 9:15        But I have made no use of any of these rights, nor am I writing these things to secure any such provision. For I would rather die than have anyone deprive me of my ground for boasting. 

Wycliffe 2001 Terrence Noble
7 Results
  1. 1.Genesis 25:31        And Jacob said to him, Sell to me the right(s) of the first begotten child. (And Jacob said to him, First sell me thy birthright/First sell me the rights of the first-born child.) 
  2. 2.Exodus 21:10        and if he take with this handmaid another woman, or wife, to his son, he shall purvey to the (first) damsel, or handmaid, weddings, and clothes, and he shall not deny her the price of (her) chastity, that is, the hour of yielding debt. (but if he get another wife, besides this woman, for his son, he shall still give this young woman her wedding, and her clothes, and he shall not deny her the rights of her marriage bed.) 
  3. 3.Deuteronomy 21:17        but he shall know the son of the hateful wife to be his first begotten son, and he shall give to that son all things double of those things that he hath; for this son is the beginning of his free children, and the first engendered things be due to him. (but he shall acknowledge the son of the hated wife to be his first-born son, and he shall give double to that son of all the things that he hath; for this son is the first of his children, and the rights of the first-born son be due to him.) 
  4. 4.Deuteronomy 27:19        He is cursed that perverteth the doom of a comeling, of a fatherless, either motherless child, and of a widow; and all the people shall say, Amen! (Cursed is anyone who withholdeth justice, or their rights, from the newcomer, the fatherless or the motherless child, and the widow; and all the people shall say, Amen!) 
  5. 5.Judges 11:24        Whether not those things which Chemosh, thy god, had in possession, be due to thee by right? Soothly those things which the Lord our God (the) overcomer hath gotten, shall fall into our possession; (Be not those things which Chemosh, thy god, had in possession, by rights be due to thee? And likewise, those things which the Lord our God the Overcomer hath taken, they shall be ours;) 
  6. 6.1 Samuel 8:9        Now therefore hear thou their voice; nevertheless witness thou to them; and before-say thou to them the right of the king, that shall reign upon them (and tell thou them, the rights of the king who shall reign over them). 
  7. 7.Esther 1:13        and he asked the wise men, which by the king’s custom were ever with him, and he did all things by the counsel of them, that knew the law and the rights of greatest men; (and he asked his wise men about this, who by the king’s custom were always with him, and he did everything after their counsel, for they knew the law and the rights of the people;) 
The Message 2002
21 Results
  1. 1.Genesis 25:31        Jacob said, "Make me a trade: my stew for your rights as the firstborn." 
  2. 2.Genesis 25:33-34        Jacob said, "First, swear to me." And he did it. On oath Esau traded away his rights as the firstborn. Jacob gave him bread and the stew of lentils. He ate and drank, got up and left. That's how Esau shrugged off his rights as the firstborn. 
  3. 3.Exodus 21:7-11        "When a man sells his daughter to be a handmaid, she doesn't go free after six years like the men. If she doesn't please her master, her family must buy her back; her master doesn't have the right to sell her to foreigners since he broke his word to her. If he turns her over to his son, he has to treat her like a daughter. If he marries another woman, she retains all her full rights to meals, clothing, and marital relations. If he won't do any of these three things for her, she goes free, for nothing. 
  4. 4.Deuteronomy 21:15-17        When a man has two wives, one loved and the other hated, and they both give him sons, but the firstborn is from the hated wife, at the time he divides the inheritance with his sons he must not treat the son of the loved wife as the firstborn, cutting out the son of the hated wife, who is the actual firstborn. No, he must acknowledge the inheritance rights of the real firstborn, the son of the hated wife, by giving him a double share of the inheritance: that son is the first proof of his virility; the rights of the firstborn belong to him. 
  5. 5.Deuteronomy 22:30        A man may not marry his father's ex-wife—that would violate his father's rights. 
  6. 6.Deuteronomy 24:17-18        Make sure foreigners and orphans get their just rights. Don't take the cloak of a widow as security for a loan. Don't ever forget that you were once slaves in Egypt and God, your God, got you out of there. I command you: Do what I'm telling you. 
  7. 7.Joshua 14:3-4        Moses had given the two and a half tribes their inheritance east of the Jordan, but hadn't given an inheritance to the Levites, as he had to the others. Because the sons of Joseph had become two tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim, they gave no allotment to the Levites; but they did give them cities to live in with pasture rights for their flocks and herds. 
  8. 8.Ruth 3:10-13        He said, "God bless you, my dear daughter! What a splendid expression of love! And when you could have had your pick of any of the young men around. And now, my dear daughter, don't you worry about a thing; I'll do all you could want or ask. Everybody in town knows what a courageous woman you are— a real prize! You're right, I am a close relative to you, but there is one even closer than I am. So stay the rest of the night. In the morning, if he wants to exercise his customary rights and responsibilities as the closest covenant redeemer, he'll have his chance; but if he isn't interested, as God lives, I'll do it. Now go back to sleep until morning." 
  9. 9.Ruth 4:3-4        Boaz then said to his relative, "The piece of property that belonged to our relative Elimelech is being sold by his widow Naomi, who has just returned from the country of Moab. I thought you ought to know about it. Buy it back if you want it—you can make it official in the presence of those sitting here and before the town elders. You have first redeemer rights. If you don't want it, tell me so I'll know where I stand. You're first in line to do this and I'm next after you." He said, "I'll buy it." 
  10. 10.Ruth 4:6        Then the relative said, "Oh, I can't do that—I'd jeopardize my own family's inheritance. You go ahead and buy it—you can have my rights— I can't do it." 
  11. 11.1 Chronicles 5:1-2        [ The Family of Reuben ] The family of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: Though Reuben was Israel's firstborn, after he slept with his father's concubine, a defiling act, his rights as the firstborn were passed on to the sons of Joseph son of Israel. He lost his "firstborn" place in the family tree. And even though Judah became the strongest of his brothers and King David eventually came from that family, the firstborn rights stayed with Joseph. 
  12. 12.Job 36:5-15        "It's true that God is all-powerful, but he doesn't bully innocent people. For the wicked, though, it's a different story— he doesn't give them the time of day, but champions the rights of their victims. He never takes his eyes off the righteous; he honors them lavishly, promotes them endlessly. When things go badly, when affliction and suffering descend, God tells them where they've gone wrong, shows them how their pride has caused their trouble. He forces them to heed his warning, tells them they must repent of their bad life. If they obey and serve him, they'll have a good, long life on easy street. But if they disobey, they'll be cut down in their prime and never know the first thing about life. Angry people without God pile grievance upon grievance, always blaming others for their troubles. Living it up in sexual excesses, virility wasted, they die young. But those who learn from their suffering, God delivers from their suffering. 
  13. 13.Psalm 140:12-13        I know that you, God, are on the side of victims, that you care for the rights of the poor. And I know that the righteous personally thank you, that good people are secure in your presence. 
  14. 14.Proverbs 31:8-9        "Speak up for the people who have no voice, for the rights of all the down-and-outers. Speak out for justice! Stand up for the poor and destitute!" 
  15. 15.Isaiah 5:21-23        Doom to you who think you're so smart, who hold such a high opinion of yourselves! All you're good at is drinking—champion boozers who collect trophies from drinking bouts And then line your pockets with bribes from the guilty while you violate the rights of the innocent. 
  16. 16.Daniel 9:9-12        "'Compassion is our only hope, the compassion of you, the Master, our God, since in our rebellion we've forfeited our rights. We paid no attention to you when you told us how to live, the clear teaching that came through your servants the prophets. All of us in Israel ignored what you said. We defied your instructions and did what we pleased. And now we're paying for it: The solemn curse written out plainly in the revelation to God's servant Moses is now doing its work among us, the wages of our sin against you. You did to us and our rulers what you said you would do: You brought this catastrophic disaster on us, the worst disaster on record—and in Jerusalem! 
  17. 17.Matthew 5:31-32        "Remember the Scripture that says, 'Whoever divorces his wife, let him do it legally, giving her divorce papers and her legal rights'? Too many of you are using that as a cover for selfishness and whim, pretending to be righteous just because you are 'legal.' Please, no more pretending. If you divorce your wife, you're responsible for making her an adulteress (unless she has already made herself that by sexual promiscuity). And if you marry such a divorced adulteress, you're automatically an adulterer yourself. You can't use legal cover to mask a moral failure. 
  18. 18.Luke 12:49-53        [ To Start a Fire ] "I've come to start a fire on this earth—how I wish it were blazing right now! I've come to change everything, turn everything rightside up—how I long for it to be finished! Do you think I came to smooth things over and make everything nice? Not so. I've come to disrupt and confront! From now on, when you find five in a house, it will be— Three against two, and two against three; Father against son, and son against father; Mother against daughter, and daughter against mother; Mother-in-law against bride, and bride against mother-in-law." 
  19. 19.Luke 18:1-3        [ The Story of the Persistent Widow ] Jesus told them a story showing that it was necessary for them to pray consistently and never quit. He said, "There was once a judge in some city who never gave God a thought and cared nothing for people. A widow in that city kept after him: 'My rights are being violated. Protect me!' 
  20. 20.1 Corinthians 7:2-6        Certainly—but only within a certain context. It's good for a man to have a wife, and for a woman to have a husband. Sexual drives are strong, but marriage is strong enough to contain them and provide for a balanced and fulfilling sexual life in a world of sexual disorder. The marriage bed must be a place of mutuality—the husband seeking to satisfy his wife, the wife seeking to satisfy her husband. Marriage is not a place to "stand up for your rights." Marriage is a decision to serve the other, whether in bed or out. Abstaining from sex is permissible for a period of time if you both agree to it, and if it's for the purposes of prayer and fasting—but only for such times. Then come back together again. Satan has an ingenious way of tempting us when we least expect it. I'm not, understand, commanding these periods of abstinence—only providing my best counsel if you should choose them. 
  21. 21.James 2:5-7        Listen, dear friends. Isn't it clear by now that God operates quite differently? He chose the world's down-and-out as the kingdom's first citizens, with full rights and privileges. This kingdom is promised to anyone who loves God. And here you are abusing these same citizens! Isn't it the high and mighty who exploit you, who use the courts to rob you blind? Aren't they the ones who scorn the new name—"Christian"—used in your baptisms? 

Easy-to-Read Version 2006
17 Results
  1. 1.Genesis 25:31        But Jacob said, “You must sell me your rights as the firstborn son.” 
  2. 2.Genesis 25:32        Esau said, “I am almost dead with hunger, so what good are these rights to me now?” 
  3. 3.Genesis 25:33        But Jacob said, “First, promise me that you will give them to me.” So Esau made an oath to him and sold his rights as the firstborn son to Jacob. 
  4. 4.Genesis 25:34        Then Jacob gave Esau bread and lentil soup. Esau ate the food, had something to drink, and then left. So Esau showed that he did not care about his rights as the firstborn son. 
  5. 5.Genesis 27:36        Esau said, “His name is Jacob. That is the right name for him. He has tricked me twice. He took away my rights as the firstborn son. And now he has taken away my blessing.” Then Esau said, “Have you saved any blessing for me?” 
  6. 6.Leviticus 25:15        If you want to buy your neighbor’s land, count the number of years since the last Jubilee, and use that number to decide the right price. You are only buying the rights for harvesting crops until the next Jubilee. 
  7. 7.Deuteronomy 21:16        When the man divides his property among his children, he cannot give the rights of the firstborn to the son of his favorite wife. 
  8. 8.Psalm 82:3        “Defend the poor and orphans. Protect the rights of the poor. 
  9. 9.Proverbs 31:5        They may drink too much and forget what the law says. Then they might take away the rights of the poor. 
  10. 10.Proverbs 31:9        Stand up for what you know is right, and judge all people fairly. Protect the rights of the poor and those who need help. 
  11. 11.Ecclesiastes 5:8        [ For Every Ruler There Is a Ruler ] In some country you will see poor people who are forced to work very hard. You will see that this is not fair to them. It is against their rights. But don’t be surprised! The ruler who forces them to work has another ruler who forces him. And there is still another ruler who forces both of these rulers. 
  12. 12.Isaiah 10:2        They are not fair to the poor. They take away the rights of the poor and allow people to steal from widows and orphans. 
  13. 13.Luke 18:3        In that same town there was a woman whose husband had died. She came many times to this judge and said, ‘There is a man who is doing bad things to me. Give me my rights!’ 
  14. 14.Acts 8:33        He was shamed, and all his rights were taken away. His life on earth has ended. So there will be no story about his descendants.” 
  15. 15.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ Rights That Paul Has Not Used ] I am a free man. I am an apostle. I have seen Jesus our Lord. You people are an example of my work in the Lord. 
  16. 16.1 Corinthians 9:15        But I have not used any of these rights, and I am not trying to get anything from you. That is not my purpose for writing this. I would rather die than to have someone take away what for me is a great source of pride. 
  17. 17.1 Corinthians 9:18        So what do I get for doing it? My reward is that when I tell people the Good News I can offer it to them for free and not use the rights that come with doing this work. 

New Living Translation 2007 Tyndale
25 Results
  1. 1.Genesis 25:31        “All right,” Jacob replied, “but trade me your rights as the firstborn son.” 
  2. 2.Genesis 25:33        But Jacob said, “First you must swear that your birthright is mine.” So Esau swore an oath, thereby selling all his rights as the firstborn to his brother, Jacob. 
  3. 3.Genesis 25:34        Then Jacob gave Esau some bread and lentil stew. Esau ate the meal, then got up and left. He showed contempt for his rights as the firstborn. 
  4. 4.Genesis 26:12        [ Conflict over Water Rights ] When Isaac planted his crops that year, he harvested a hundred times more grain than he planted, for the LORD blessed him. 
  5. 5.Genesis 27:36        Esau exclaimed, “No wonder his name is Jacob, for now he has cheated me twice. First he took my rights as the firstborn, and now he has stolen my blessing. Oh, haven’t you saved even one blessing for me?” 
  6. 6.Genesis 31:15        He has reduced our rights to those of foreign women. And after he sold us, he wasted the money you paid him for us. 
  7. 7.Exodus 21:10        “If a man who has married a slave wife takes another wife for himself, he must not neglect the rights of the first wife to food, clothing, and sexual intimacy. 
  8. 8.Deuteronomy 21:15        [ Rights of the Firstborn ] “Suppose a man has two wives, but he loves one and not the other, and both have given him sons. And suppose the firstborn son is the son of the wife he does not love. 
  9. 9.Deuteronomy 21:17        He must recognize the rights of his oldest son, the son of the wife he does not love, by giving him a double portion. He is the first son of his father’s virility, and the rights of the firstborn belong to him. 
  10. 10.1 Samuel 10:25        Then Samuel told the people what the rights and duties of a king were. He wrote them down on a scroll and placed it before the LORD. Then Samuel sent the people home again. 
  11. 11.Job 27:2        “I vow by the living God, who has taken away my rights, by the Almighty who has embittered my soul— 
  12. 12.Job 34:5        For Job also said, ‘I am innocent, but God has taken away my rights. 
  13. 13.Psalm 82:3        “Give justice to the poor and the orphan; uphold the rights of the oppressed and the destitute. 
  14. 14.Psalm 87:5        Regarding Jerusalem it will be said, “Everyone enjoys the rights of citizenship there.” And the Most High will personally bless this city. 
  15. 15.Proverbs 29:7        The godly care about the rights of the poor; the wicked don’t care at all. 
  16. 16.Isaiah 1:17        Learn to do good. Seek justice. Help the oppressed. Defend the cause of orphans. Fight for the rights of widows. 
  17. 17.Isaiah 1:23        Your leaders are rebels, the companions of thieves. All of them love bribes and demand payoffs, but they refuse to defend the cause of orphans or fight for the rights of widows. 
  18. 18.Isaiah 10:2        They deprive the poor of justice and deny the rights of the needy among my people. They prey on widows and take advantage of orphans. 
  19. 19.Isaiah 40:27        O Jacob, how can you say the LORD does not see your troubles? O Israel, how can you say God ignores your rights? 
  20. 20.Jeremiah 5:28        They are fat and sleek, and there is no limit to their wicked deeds. They refuse to provide justice to orphans and deny the rights of the poor. 
  21. 21.Lamentations 3:35        if they deprive others of their rights in defiance of the Most High, 
  22. 22.Romans 8:23        And we believers also groan, even though we have the Holy Spirit within us as a foretaste of future glory, for we long for our bodies to be released from sin and suffering. We, too, wait with eager hope for the day when God will give us our full rights as his adopted children, including the new bodies he has promised us. 
  23. 23.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ Paul Gives Up His Rights ] Am I not as free as anyone else? Am I not an apostle? Haven’t I seen Jesus our Lord with my own eyes? Isn’t it because of my work that you belong to the Lord? 
  24. 24.1 Corinthians 9:15        Yet I have never used any of these rights. And I am not writing this to suggest that I want to start now. In fact, I would rather die than lose my right to boast about preaching without charge. 
  25. 25.1 Corinthians 9:18        What then is my pay? It is the opportunity to preach the Good News without charging anyone. That’s why I never demand my rights when I preach the Good News. 

Lexham English Bible Logos Software 2012
8 Results
  1. 1.Deuteronomy 24:17        You shall not subvert the rights of an alien or an orphan, and you shall not take as pledge the garment of a widow. 
  2. 2.Esther 1:13        And the king said to the wise men, the ones who know the times —for it was the procedure of the king before all those who knew law and rights; 
  3. 3.Proverbs 31:5        Or else he will drink and forget what has been decreed, and he will pervert the rights of all the afflicted. 
  4. 4.Proverbs 31:8        Open your mouth for the mute, for the rights of all the needy. 
  5. 5.Isaiah 50:8        he who obtains rights for me is near. Who will contend with me? Let us stand together. Who is the master of my judgment? Let him approach me. 
  6. 6.Jeremiah 11:15        What rights has my beloved in my house when she has done many wicked things? Can the flesh of holiness pass over you? For you engage in your wickedness, then you exult. 
  7. 7.1 Corinthians 9:1        [ Paul Gives Up His Rights as an Apostle ] Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not my work in the Lord? 
  8. 8.1 Corinthians 9:15        But I have not made use of any of these rights. And I am not writing these things in order that it may be thus with me. For it would be better to me rather to die than for anyone to deprive me of my reason for boasting. 

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